Skip to main content

The Amplifying and Buffering Effects of Virtuousness in Downsized Organizations

Abstract

Virtuousness refers to the pursuit of the highest aspirations in the human condition. It is characterized by human impact, moral goodness, and unconditional societal betterment. Several writers have recently argued that corporations, in addition to being concerned with ethics, should also emphasize an ethos of virtuousness in corporate action. Virtuousness emphasizes actions that go beyond the “do no harm” assumption embedded in most ethical codes of conduct. Instead, it emphasizes the highest and best of the human condition. This research empirically examines the buffering and amplifying effects of virtuousness in organizations. The study hypothesizes that virtuousness has a positive effect on organizations because amplifying dynamics make subsequent virtuous action more likely, and buffering dynamics reduce the harmful effects of downsizing. The study reveals that two types of virtuousness – tonic and phasic – are associated with these effects.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. P. S. Adler S. Kwon (2002) ArticleTitle‘Social Capital: Prospects for a New Concept’ Academy of Management Review 27 17–40

    Google Scholar 

  2. InstitutionalAuthorNameAristotle (2003) ‘Nicomachean Ethics’ S. M. Cahn (Eds) Philosophy for the 21st Century Oxford New York 610–618

    Google Scholar 

  3. S. Arjoon (2000) ArticleTitle‘Virtue Theory As a Dynamic Theory of Business’ Journal of Business Ethics 28 IssueID2 159–178 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1006339112331

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. S. E. Asche (1952) Social Psychology Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ

    Google Scholar 

  5. W. Baker (2001) Achieving Success Through Social Capital: Tapping Hidden Resources in Your Personal and Business Networks Jossey-Bass San Francisco

    Google Scholar 

  6. S. G. Barsade (2002) ArticleTitle‘The Ripple Effect: Emotional Contagion and its Influence on Goup Behavior’ Administrative Science Quarterly 47 IssueID4 644–675

    Google Scholar 

  7. C. D. Batson (1991) The Altruism Question: Toward a Social-Psychological Answer Lawrence Erlbaum Hillsdale NJ

    Google Scholar 

  8. C. D. Batson (1994) ArticleTitle‘Why Act for the Public Good? Four Answers’ Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 20 603–610

    Google Scholar 

  9. R. F. Baumeister J. Exline (1999) ArticleTitle‘Virtue, Personality, and Social Relations: Self-Control As Moral Muscle’ Journal of Personality 67 1165–1194 Occurrence Handle10.1111/1467-6494.00086

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. P. D. Bliese (2000) ‘Within-Group Agreement, Non-Independence, and Reliability: Implications for Data Aggregation and Analysis’ K. J. Klein S. W. J. Kozlowski (Eds) Multilevel Theory, Research, and Methods in Organizations Jossey-Bass San Francisco 349–381

    Google Scholar 

  11. M. C. Bolino W. H. Turnley J. M. Bloodgood (2002) ArticleTitle‘Citizenship Behavior and the Creation of Social Captial in Organizations’ Academy of Management Review 27 IssueID4 505–522

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bright, David S.: 2005, ‘Forgiveness and Change: Begrudging, Pragmatic, and Transcendent Responses to Discomfiture in a Unionized Trucking Company’ Unpublished Dissertation, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (Dissertation Abstractions International).

  13. Bright, D. S., R. E. Fry and D. L. Cooperrider: In press, ‘Forgiveness from the Perspectives of Three Response Modes: Begrudgement, Pragmatism, and Transcendence’, Journal of Management Spirituality and Religion.

  14. M. B. Brewer W. Gardner (1996) ArticleTitle‘Who is This “We”? Levels of Collective Identity and Self Representations’ Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71 83–93 Occurrence Handle10.1037/0022-3514.71.1.83

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. K. S. Cameron (1994) ArticleTitle‘Strategies for Successful Organizational Downsizing’ Human Resource Management Journal 33 189–211

    Google Scholar 

  16. K. S. Cameron (1998) ArticleTitle‘Strategic Organizational Downsizing: An Extreme Case’ Research in Organizational Behavior 20 185–229

    Google Scholar 

  17. K. S. Cameron (2003) ‘Organizational Virtuousness and Performance’ K. S. Cameron J. E. Dutton R. E. Quinn (Eds) Positive Organizational Scholarship Barrett-Koehler San Francisco 48–65

    Google Scholar 

  18. K. S. Cameron D. S. Bright A. Caza (2004) ArticleTitle‘Exploring the Relationships between Organizational Virtuousness and Performance’ American Behavioral Scientist 47 IssueID6 766–790

    Google Scholar 

  19. K. S. Cameron J. E. Dutton R. E. Quinn (Eds) (2003) Positive Organizational Scholarship Barrett-Koehler San Francisco

    Google Scholar 

  20. K. S. Cameron M. U. Kim D. A. Whetten (1987) ArticleTitle‘Organizational Effects of Decline and Turbulence’ Administrative Science Quarterly 32 222–240

    Google Scholar 

  21. W. F. Cascio C. Young J. R. Morris (1997) ArticleTitle‘Financial Consequences of Employment Change Decisions in Major US Corporations’ Academy of Management Journal 40 1175–1189

    Google Scholar 

  22. E. J. Cassell (2002) ‘Compassion’ C. R. Snyder S. J. Lopez (Eds) Handbook of Positive Psychology Oxford University Press New York 434–443

    Google Scholar 

  23. A. Caza B. Barker K. Cameron (2004) ArticleTitle‘Ethics and Ethos: The Amplifying and Buffering Effects of Ethical Behavior and Virtuousness’ Journal of Business Ethics 52 169–178 Occurrence Handle10.1023/B:BUSI.0000035909.05560.0e

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. R. B. Cialdini (2000) Influence: The Science of Persuasion Allyn Bacon New York

    Google Scholar 

  25. A. T. Clark (1992) ‘Humility’ D. H. Ludlow (Eds) Encyclopedia of Mormonism Macmillan New York 663–664

    Google Scholar 

  26. D. O. Clifton J. K. Harter (2003) ‘Investing in Strengths’ K. S. Cameron J. E. Dutton R. E. Quinn (Eds) Positive Organizational Scholarship: Foundations of a New Discipline Berrett Koehler San Francisco 111–121

    Google Scholar 

  27. J. A. Cohan (2002) ArticleTitle“I Didn’t Know’ and ‘I Was Only Doing My Job’: Has Corporate Governance Careened Out of Control?’ Journal of Business Ethics 40 IssueID3 275–300 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1020506501398

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. J. Collins (2001) Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap.... and Others Don’t Harper-Collins New York

    Google Scholar 

  29. Comte-Sponville: 2001, (Trans. C. Temerson), A Small Treatise of the Great Virtues (Metropolitan Books, New York).

  30. R. M. Dawes A. J. C. Kragt Particlevan de J. Orbell (1990) ‘Cooperation for the Benefit of Us: Not Me, or My Conscience’ J. J. Mansbridge (Eds) Beyond Self-Interest University of Chicago Press Chicago 97–110

    Google Scholar 

  31. J. Dawkins S. Lewis (2003) ArticleTitle‘CSR in Stakeholder Expectations: And their Implications for Company Strategy’ Journal of Business Ethics 44 IssueID2/3 185–193

    Google Scholar 

  32. R. A. Dienstbier L. M. Zillig (2002) ‘Toughness’ C. R. Snyder S. J. Lopez (Eds) Handbook of Positive Psychology Oxford University Press New York 515–527

    Google Scholar 

  33. Dobson, J.: 2004, ‘Applying Virtue Ethics in Business: The Agent-Based Approach’, Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies, 9(1). World-wide web access at http://ejbo.jyu.fi.

  34. J. E. Dutton P. J. Frost M. C. Worline J. M. Lilius J. M. Kanov (2002) ArticleTitle‘Leading in Times of Trauma’ Harvard Business Review 80 IssueID1 54–61

    Google Scholar 

  35. J. E. Dutton E. D. Heaphy (2003) ‘The Power of High-Quality Connections’ K. S. Cameron J. E. Dutton R. E. Quinn (Eds) Positive Organizational Scholarship: Foundations of a New Discipline Berrett Koehler San Francisco 263–278

    Google Scholar 

  36. B. Dyck R. Kleysen (2001) ArticleTitle‘Aristotles Virtues and Management Thought: An Empirical Exploration of an Integrative Pedagogy’ Business Ethics Quarterly 11 IssueID4 561

    Google Scholar 

  37. N. Eisenberg (1986) Altruistic Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior Erlbaum Hillsdale, NJ

    Google Scholar 

  38. R. A. Emmons (1999) The Psychology of Ultimate Concerns: Motivation and Spirituality in Personality Guildford Press New York

    Google Scholar 

  39. R. A. Emmons (2003) ‘Acts of Gratitude in Organizations’ K. S. Cameron J. E. Dutton R. E. Quinn (Eds) Positive Organizational Scholarship: Foundations of a New Discipline Berrett Koehler San Francisco 81–93

    Google Scholar 

  40. R. A. Emmons C. A. Crumpler (2000) ArticleTitle‘Gratitude As a Human Strength: Appraising the Evidence’ Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology 19 IssueID1 56–69

    Google Scholar 

  41. M. S. Feldman A. M. Khademian (2003) ‘Empowerment and Cascading Vitality’ K. S. Cameron J. E. Dutton R. E. Quinn (Eds) Positive Organizational Scholarship: Foundations of a New Discipline Berrett Koehler San Francisco 343–358

    Google Scholar 

  42. S. Fineman (1996) ‘Emotion and Organizing’ S. R. Clegg C. Hardy W. R. Nord (Eds) The Handbook of Organizational Studies Sage London 543–564

    Google Scholar 

  43. R. P. Fitzgibbons (1986) ArticleTitle‘The Cognitive and Emotive Uses of Forgiveness in the Treatment of Anger’ Psychotherapy 23 IssueID4 629–633

    Google Scholar 

  44. B. J. Fowers A. C. Tjeltveit (2003) ArticleTitle‘Virtue Obscured and Retrieved: Character, Community, and Practices in Behavioral Science’ American Behavioral Scientist 47 IssueID4 387–394

    Google Scholar 

  45. B. L. Fredrickson (1998) ArticleTitle‘What Good Are Positive Emotions?’ Review of General Psychology 2 300–319 Occurrence Handle10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.300

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. B. L. Fredrickson (2003) ‘Positive Emotions and Upward Spirals in Organizations’ K. S. Cameron J. E. Dutton R. E. Quinn (Eds) Positive Organizational Scholarship: Foundations of a New Discipline Berrett Koehler San Francisco 163–175

    Google Scholar 

  47. B. L. Fredrickson T. Joiner (2002) ArticleTitle‘Positive Emotions Trigger Upward Spirals Toward Emotional Well-Being’ Psychological Science 13 IssueID2 172 Occurrence Handle10.1111/1467-9280.00431

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. B. L. Fredrickson R. A. Mancuso C. Branigan M. M. Tugade (2000) ArticleTitle‘The Undoing Effect of Positive Emotions’ Motivation & Emotion 24 IssueID4 237–258

    Google Scholar 

  49. B. L. Fredrickson M. Losada (2005) ArticleTitle‘Positive Affect and the Complex Dynamics of Human Flourishing’ American Psychologist 60 IssueID7 678–686 Occurrence Handle10.1037/0003-066X.60.7.678

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. P. Frost (1999) ArticleTitle‘Why Compassion Counts!’ Journal of Management Inquiry 8 IssueID2 127–133

    Google Scholar 

  51. P. J. Frost J. E. Dutton M. C. Worline A. Wilson (2000) ‘Narratives of Compassion in Organizations’ S. Fineman (Eds) Emotion in Organizations Sage Publications Thousand Oaks, CA 25–45

    Google Scholar 

  52. J. M. George (1995) ArticleTitle‘Leader Positive Mood and Group Performance: The Case of Customer Service’ Journal of Applied Social Psychology 25 IssueID9 778–794

    Google Scholar 

  53. K. J. Gergen (1990) ‘Affect and Organization in Postmodern Society’ S. Srivastva D. L. Cooperrider (Eds) Appreciative Management and Leadership: The Power of Positive Thought and Action in Organizations. Jossey-Bass Inc. San Francisco 153–174

    Google Scholar 

  54. M. Girard E. Mullet (1997) ArticleTitle‘Propensity to Forgive in Adolescents, Young Adults, Older Adults, and Elderly People’ Journal of Adult Development 4 209–220

    Google Scholar 

  55. M. Gunther (2004) Faith and Fortune: The Quiet Revolution to Reform America’s Business Crown Business New York

    Google Scholar 

  56. J. R. Hackman (1992) ‘Group Influences on Individuals in Organizations’ M. D. Dunnett L. M. Hough (Eds) Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology Consulting Psychologists Press Palo Alto, CA 199–267

    Google Scholar 

  57. S. Harter (2002) ‘Authenticity’ C. R. Snyder S. J. Lopez (Eds) Handbook of Positive Psychology Oxford University Press New York 382–394

    Google Scholar 

  58. G. Hillelfarb (1996) The De-Moralization of Society: From Victorian Virtues to Modern Values Vintage New York

    Google Scholar 

  59. L. R. James R. J. Demaree G. Wolf (1984) ArticleTitle‘Estimating Within-Group Interrater Reliability With and Without Response Bias’ Journal of Applied Psychology 69 85–98

    Google Scholar 

  60. A. E. Jordan N. M. Meara (1990) ArticleTitle‘Ethics and the Professional Practice of Psychologists: The Role of Virtues and Principles’ Professional Psychology Research and Practice 21 107–114 Occurrence Handle10.1037/0735-7028.21.2.107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. J. M. Kanov S. Maitlis M. C. Worline J. E. Dutton P. J. Frost J. M. Lilius (2004) ArticleTitle‘Compassion in Organizational Life’ American Behavioral Scientist 47 IssueID6 808–827 Occurrence Handle10.1177/0002764203260211

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. D. C. Klein (1992) ArticleTitle‘Managing Humiliation’ Journal of Primary Prevention 12 255–268 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF02015513

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. D. Krebs (1987) ‘The Challenge of Altruism in Biology and Psychology’ C. Crawford M. Smith D. Krebs (Eds) Sociobiology and Psychology Lawrence Erlbaum Hillsdale, NJ

    Google Scholar 

  64. H. G. Lerner (1993) The Dance of Deception Harper Collins New York

    Google Scholar 

  65. A. MacIntyre (1984) ‘The Nature of the Virtues’ A. MacIntyre (Eds) After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory EditionNumber2 Notre Dame Press Notre Dame, IN

    Google Scholar 

  66. J. D. Margolis J. P. Walsh (2003) ArticleTitle‘Misery Loves Companies: Rethinking Social Initiatives by Business’ Administrative Science Quarterly 48 IssueID2 268–305

    Google Scholar 

  67. A. S. Masten G. J. Reed (2002) ‘Resilience in Development’ C. R. Snyder S. J. Lopez (Eds) Handbook of Positive Psychology Oxford University Press New York 74–88

    Google Scholar 

  68. M. E. McCullough K. C. Rachal S. J. Sandage E. L. Worthington SuffixJr. S. W. Brown T. L. Hight (1998) ArticleTitle‘Interpersonal Forgiving in Close Relationships: II. Theoretical Elaboration and Measurement’ Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75 1586–1603 Occurrence Handle10.1037/0022-3514.75.6.1586

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. M. E. McCullough (2000) ArticleTitle‘Forgiveness As Human Strength: Theory, Measurement, and Links to Well-Being’ Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 19 IssueID1 43–55

    Google Scholar 

  70. M. E. McCullough K. I. Pargament C. E. Thoresen (Eds) (2000) Forgiveness: Theory, Research, and Practice The Guilford Press New York

    Google Scholar 

  71. M. E. McCullough C. R. Snyder (2000) ArticleTitle‘Classical Source of Human Strength: Revisiting an Old Home and Building a New One’ Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 19 IssueID1 1–10

    Google Scholar 

  72. M. E. McCullough C. V. Witvliet (2002) ‘The Psychology of Forgiveness’ C. R. Snyder S. J. Lopez (Eds) Handbook of Positive Psychology Oxford University Press London 446–458

    Google Scholar 

  73. M. E. McCullough E. L. Worthington (1994) ArticleTitle‘Models of Interpersonal Forgiveness and their Applications to Counseling: Review and Critique’ Counseling and Values 39 2–14

    Google Scholar 

  74. M. E. McCullough E. L. Worthington K. C. Rachal (1997) ArticleTitle‘Interpersonal Forgiving in Close Relationships’ Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73 321–336 Occurrence Handle10.1037/0022-3514.73.2.321

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. W. McKinley C. M. Sanchez A. G. Schick (1995) ArticleTitle‘Organizational Downsizing: Constraining, Cloning, and Learning’ Academy of Management Executive 9 32–44

    Google Scholar 

  76. B. L. McNeely B. M. Meglino (1994) ArticleTitle‘The Role of Dispositional and Situational Antecedents in Prosocial Organizational Behavior: An Examination of the Intended Beneficiaries of Prosocial Behavior’ Journal of Applied Psychology 79 IssueID6 836–844 Occurrence Handle10.1037/0021-9010.79.6.836

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. J. R. Means G. L. Wilson C. Sturm J. E. Biron P. J. Bach (1990) ArticleTitle‘Theory and Practice: Humility as a Psychotherapeutic Formulation’ Counseling Psychology Quarterly 3 211–215

    Google Scholar 

  78. J. Morse (1999) ArticleTitle‘The Missing Link between Virtue Theory and Business Ethics’ Journal of Applied Philosophy 16 IssueID1 47 Occurrence Handle10.1111/1468-5930.00107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. J. Nesteruk (1996) ArticleTitle‘Law, Virtue, and the Corporation’ American Business Law Journal 33 IssueID3 473

    Google Scholar 

  80. N. Park C. M. Peterson (2003) ‘Virtues and Organizations’ K. S. Cameron J. E. Dutton R. E. Quinn (Eds) Positive Organizational Scholarship: Foundations of a New Discipline Berrett Koehler San Francisco 33–47

    Google Scholar 

  81. C. Peterson M. E. P. Seligman (Eds) (2004) Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification Oxford University Press New York

    Google Scholar 

  82. C. Peterson (1991) Health and Optimism Free Press New York

    Google Scholar 

  83. M. G. Pratt B. E. Ashforth (2003) ‘Fostering Meaningfulness in Working and at Work’ K. S. Cameron J. E. Dutton R. E. Quinn (Eds) Positive Organizational Scholarship: Foundations of a New Discipline Berrett Koehler San Francisco 309–327

    Google Scholar 

  84. J. Rawls (1971) A Theory of Justice Belknap Press of Harvard University Press Cambridge, MA

    Google Scholar 

  85. N. Richards (1992) Humility Templeton University Press Philadelphia

    Google Scholar 

  86. C. R. Rogers (1951) On Becoming a Person Houghton-Miflin Boston

    Google Scholar 

  87. C. D. Ryff E. Singer (1998) ArticleTitle‘The Contours of Human Health’ Psychological Inquiry 8 1–28

    Google Scholar 

  88. E. H. Schein (1992) Organizational Culture and Leadership EditionNumber2 Jossey-Bass San Francisco

    Google Scholar 

  89. K. Schudt (2000) ArticleTitle‘Taming the Corporate Monster: An Aristotelian Approach to Corporate Virtues’ Business Ethics Quarterly 10 711–723

    Google Scholar 

  90. M. E. P. Seligman (1991) Learned Optimism Knopf New York

    Google Scholar 

  91. M. E. P. Seligman (2002a) Authentic Happiness Free Press New York

    Google Scholar 

  92. M. E. P. Seligman (2002b) ‘Positive Psychology, Positive Prevention, and Positive Therapy’ C. R. Snyder S. Lopez (Eds) Handbook of Positive Psychology Oxford University Press New York 3–9

    Google Scholar 

  93. M. E. P. Seligman M. Csikszentmihalyi (2000) ArticleTitle‘Positive Psychology: An Introduction’ American Psychologist 55 IssueID1 5–14 Occurrence Handle10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. R. Sethi C. Y. Nicholson (2001) ArticleTitle‘Structural and Contextual Correlates of Charged Behavior in Product Development Teams’ Journal of Product Innovation Management 18 154–168 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0737-6782(01)00072-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. J. D. Singer (1998) ArticleTitle‘Using SAS PROC MIXED to Fit Multilevel Models, Hierarchical Models, and Individual Growth Models’ Journal of Education and Behavioral Studies 24 IssueID4 323–355

    Google Scholar 

  96. C. R. Snyder (2000) ArticleTitle‘The Past and Possible Futures of Hope’ Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 2000 19 IssueID1 11–28

    Google Scholar 

  97. C. R. Snyder D. B. Feldman J. D. Taylor L. L. Schroeder V. H. Adams (2000) ArticleTitle‘The Roles of Hopeful Thinking in Preventing Problems and Enhancing Strengths’ Applied and Preventive Psychology 9 IssueID4 249–269 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0962-1849(00)80003-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. C. R. Snyder K. L. Rand D. R. Sigmon (2002) ‘Hope Theory: A Member of the Positive Psychology Family’ C. R. Snyder S. J. Lopez (Eds) Handbook of Positive Psychology Oxford University Press New York 257–276

    Google Scholar 

  99. R. C. Solomon (1998) ArticleTitle‘The Moral Psychology of Business: Care and Compassion in the Corporation’ Business Ethics Quarterly 8 515–533

    Google Scholar 

  100. G. M. Spreitzer S. Sonenshein (2003) ‘Positive Deviance and Extraordinary Organizing’ S. Cameron J. E. Dutton R. E. Quinn (Eds) Positive Organizational Scholarship: Foundations of a New Discipline Berrett Koehler San Francisco 207–224

    Google Scholar 

  101. B. M. Staw L. E. Sandelands J. E. Dutton (1981) ArticleTitle‘Threat-Rigidity Effects in Organizational Behavior: A Multilevel Analysis’ Administrative Science Quarterly 26 501–524

    Google Scholar 

  102. J. J. Sternberg (1998) ArticleTitle‘A Balanced Theory of Wisdom’ Review of General Psychology, 2 347–365 Occurrence Handle10.1037/1089-2680.2.4.347

    Article  Google Scholar 

  103. K. M. Sutcliffe T. J. Vogus (2003) ‘Organizing for Resilience’ K. S. Cameron J. E. Dutton R. E. Quinn (Eds) Positive Organizational Scholarship: Foundations of a New Discipline Berrett Koehler San Francisco 94–110

    Google Scholar 

  104. J. Tangney (2002) ‘Humility’ C. R. Snyder S. J. Lopez (Eds) Handbook of Positive Psychology Oxford University Press New York 411–419

    Google Scholar 

  105. A. C. Tjeltveit (2003) ArticleTitle‘Implicit Virtues, Divergent Goods, Multiple Communities’ American Behavioral Scientist 47 IssueID4 395–414 Occurrence Handle10.1177/0002764203256946

    Article  Google Scholar 

  106. J. P. Walsh (1999) ‘Business Must Talk about its Social Role’ T. Dickson (Eds) Mastering Strategy: The Complete MBA Companion in Strategy Pearson Education Limited London 289–294

    Google Scholar 

  107. K. E. Weick K. M. Sutcliffe D. Obstfeld (1999) ArticleTitle‘Organizing for Reliability: Processes of Collective Mindfulness’ Research in Organizational Behavior 21 81–123

    Google Scholar 

  108. J. Weiser S. Zadek (2000) Conversations with Disbelievers: Persuading Companies to Address Social Challenges The Ford Foundation New York

    Google Scholar 

  109. C. V. Witvliet T. E. Ludwig K. L. Laan ParticleVander (2001) ArticleTitle‘Granting Forgiveness or Harboring Grudges: Implications for Emotion, Physiology, and Health’ Psychological Science, 12 IssueID2 117–123

    Google Scholar 

  110. A. Wrzesniewski C. McCauley P. Rozin B. Schwartz (1997) ArticleTitle‘Jobs, Careers, and Callings: People’s Relations to their Work’ Journal of Research in Personality 31 21–33 Occurrence Handle10.1006/jrpe.1997.2162

    Article  Google Scholar 

  111. A. Wrzesniewski (2003) ‘Finding Positive Meaning in Work’ K. S. Cameron J. E. Dutton R. E. Quinn (Eds) Positive Organizational Scholarship: Foundations of a New Discipline Berrett Koehler San Francisco 296–308

    Google Scholar 

  112. L. Yamhure Thompson P. E. Shahen (2003) ‘Forgiveness in the Workplace’ R. C. Giacalone C. L. Jurkiewicz (Eds) Handbook of Spirituality and Organizational Performance M.E. Sharpe New York 405–420

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to David S. Bright.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bright, D.S., Cameron, K.S. & Caza, A. The Amplifying and Buffering Effects of Virtuousness in Downsized Organizations. J Bus Ethics 64, 249–269 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-005-5904-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • ethics
  • virtuousness
  • virtues
  • downsizing