Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an aggressive variant characterized by erythema, edema, and “peau d’orange” of the skin progressing within 6 months. We assessed the incidence and survival of IBC in the US over four decades.
Using SEER*Stat, a case list of IBC patients diagnosed between 1973 and 2015 (n = 29,718) was extracted from SEER 18 registries by using a combination of morphology, stage, and extent of disease criteria. M1 and M0 patients were included. Age-adjusted incidence rates, relative survival rates, and mean survival time were calculated. Significance was determined as non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals.
The overall incidence of IBC from 1973 to 2015 is 2.76 (2.73, 2.79) cases per 100,000 people, with white patients having an incidence rate of 2.63 (2.60, 2.67), black patients 4.52 (4.39, 4.65), and patients of other race 1.84 (1.76, 1.93). The overall IBC relative 5-year survival rate is 40.5% (39.0%, 42.0%), 42.5% (40.7%, 44.3%), and 29.9% (26.6%, 33.3%) for white patients and black patients, respectively. Patients diagnosed in 1978–1982 have a mean survival time of 62.3 (52.0, 72.6) months, while those diagnosed in 2008–2012 have mean survival time of 99.4 (96.4, 102.4) months. There is no significant difference in survival time between T4D patients and patients with other T staging and extent of disease coding consistent with clinical IBC presentation.
IBC survival has increased over four decades. Despite the improvement in survival for all racial groups, a persistent survival disparity that has not narrowed over two decades remains between white and black patients.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
van Uden DJP, van Laarhoven HWM, Westenberg AH, de Wilt JHW, Blanken-Peeters CFJM (2015) Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2014.09.003
Chang S, Parker SL, Pham T, Buzdar AU, Hursting SD (1998) Inflammatory breast carcinoma incidence and survival: the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results program of the National Cancer Institute, 1975–1992. Cancer 82(12):2366–2372
Hance KW, Anderson WF, Devesa SS, Young HA, Levine PH (2005) Trends in inflammatory breast carcinoma incidence and survival: the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results program at the National Cancer Institute. J Natl Cancer Inst. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/dji172
Schlichting JA, Soliman AS, Schairer C, Schottenfeld D, Merajver SD (2012) Inflammatory and non-inflammatory breast cancer survival by socioeconomic position in the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database, 1990–2008. Breast Cancer Res Treat. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-012-2133-2
Schinkel JK et al (2014) Racial/ethnic differences in breast cancer survival by inflammatory status and hormonal receptor status: an analysis of the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results data. Cancer Causes Control. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-014-0395-1
Li J et al (2017) Outcomes of patients with inflammatory breast cancer by hormone receptor- and HER2-defined molecular subtypes: a population-based study from the SEER program. Oncotarget. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.17217
Goldner B, Behrendt CE, Schoellhammer HF, Lee B, Chen SL (2014) Incidence of inflammatory breast cancer in women, 1992–2009, United States. Ann Surg Oncol. https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-013-3439-y
D Il’yasova, S Siamakpour-Reihani, I Akushevich, L Akushevich, N Spector J Schildkraut, (2011) What can we learn from the age- and race/ethnicity- specific rates of inflammatory breast carcinoma? Breast Cancer Res Treat. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-011-1719-4
Levine PH, Steinhorn SC, Ries LG, Aron JL (1985) Inflammatory breast cancer: the experience of the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) program. J Natl Cancer Inst 74:291–297
Dawood S et al (2011) International expert panel on inflammatory breast cancer: Consensus statement for standardized diagnosis and treatment. Ann Oncol. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdq345
Tiwari RC, Clegg LX, Zou Z (2006) Efficient interval estimation for age-adjusted cancer rates. Stat Methods Med Res. https://doi.org/10.1177/0962280206070621
Aurit SJ, Devesa SS, Soliman AS, Schairer C (2019) Inflammatory and other breast cancer incidence rate trends by estrogen receptor status in the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database (2001–2015). Breast Cancer Res Treat. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-019-05193-0
Kaye DH, D. a Freedman, (2011) Reference guide on statistics. In: Kaye DH, Freedman DA (eds) Reference manual on science evidence, 3rd edn. The National Academies Press, Washington D.C, p 211
Ederer F, Heise H (1959) Instructions to IBM 650 programmers in processing survival computations. Methodological note No.10. End results evaluation section. Bethesda, MD
M. Greenwood (1926) A report on the natural duration of cancer. Reports on public health and medical subjects. Ministry of Health, London H M S O.
Brenner H, Gefeller O (1996) An alternative approach to monitoring cancer patient survival. Cancer 78:2004–2010
Efron B (1979) Bootstrap methods another look at the Jackknife. In: Kotz S, Johnson NL (eds) Breakthroughs in statistics. Series in statistics (Perspectives in statistics). Springer, New York, pp 569–593
Hirko KA et al (2014) A comparison of criteria to identify inflammatory breast cancer cases from medical records and the surveillance, epidemiology and end results data base, 2007–2009. Breast J. https://doi.org/10.1111/tbj.12234
Levine PH et al (2010) What is inflammatory breast cancer? revisiting the case definition. Cancers (Basel). https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers2010143
Noone A et al (2017) SEER cancer statistics review, 1975–2015. National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD
DeSantis C, Miller K, Sauer AG, Jemal A, Siegel R (2019) Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2019. CA Cancer J Clin 69(3):211–233
DeSantis CE, Fedewa SA, Goding Sauer A, Kramer JL, Smith RA, Jemal A (2016) Breast cancer statistics, 2015: convergence of incidence rates between black and white women. CA Cancer J Clin 66(1):31–42
This work was supported in part by the Breast Cancer Research Foundation to SDM; and the Rogel Cancer Center Core Grant (P30CA046592).
Conflict of interest
Dr. Merajver is a founder and Chief Scientific Officer of InheRET, Inc. The work she performs for InheRET is unrelated to this manuscript. The authors have no other conflicts of interest to disclose.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Abraham, H.G., Xia, Y., Mukherjee, B. et al. Incidence and survival of inflammatory breast cancer between 1973 and 2015 in the SEER database. Breast Cancer Res Treat 185, 229–238 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05938-2
- Inflammatory breast cancer