Exercise training affects hemodynamics not cardiac function during anthracycline-based chemotherapy

Abstract

Introduction

Preclinical data demonstrate the potential for exercise training to protect against anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity, but this remains to be shown in humans.

Purpose

To assess whether exercise training during anthracycline-based chemotherapy for treatment of breast cancer affects resting cardiac function and hemodynamics.

Methods

In this prospective, non-randomized controlled study, 26 women who participated in aerobic and resistance training 3×/wk during chemotherapy were compared to 11 women receiving usual care. Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed before and 7–14 days after completion of anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Pre- and post-anthracycline cardiac function and hemodynamic variables were compared within each group with paired t-tests; the change was compared between groups using ANCOVA with adjustment for baseline values.

Results

Left ventricular longitudinal strain, volumes, ejection fraction, E/A ratio, and mass did not change in either group. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean arterial pressure decreased significantly from baseline in both groups (all p < 0.05) with no differences between groups. Cardiac output increased in the usual care group only (+ 0.27 ± 0.24 L/min/m2, p < 0.01), which differed significantly from the exercise group (p = 0.03). Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) decreased in both groups (usual care: − 444, p < 0.01; exercise: − 265, dynes/s/cm5, p = 0.01). However, the reduction in SVR was significantly attenuated in the exercise group (p = 0.03) perhaps due to a compensatory decrease in estimated vessel lumen radius.

Conclusion

Exercise training during anthracycline chemotherapy treatment had no effect on resting cardiac function but appeared to modify hemodynamic responses. Specifically, exercise training attenuated the drop in SVR in response to chemotherapy-related reductions in hematocrit potentially by increasing vessel lumen radius.

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Fig. 1

Data availability

The datasets during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Funding

This work was supported by the American College of Sports Medicine Foundation (2013–2015); the British Columbia Cancer Agency (2014–2016). Dr. Kirkham was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (2010–11, 2012–14) and the University of British Columbia Four-year Fellowship (2010–11, 2012–15).

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Authors

Contributions

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed by AK and KB. The first draft of the manuscript was written by AK and KC and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kristin L. Campbell.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethics approval

The British Columbia Cancer Agency (H12-02504) and University of British Columbia Research (H13-03090) Ethics Boards approved this research. The study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Kirkham, A.A., Virani, S.A., Bland, K.A. et al. Exercise training affects hemodynamics not cardiac function during anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat 184, 75–85 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05824-x

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Keywords

  • Anthracyclines
  • Exercise
  • Hemodynamics
  • Cardiotoxicity
  • Heart function tests