Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 154, Issue 1, pp 201–207 | Cite as

Explicating perceived barriers to mammography for the USCREEN project: concerns about breast implants, faith violations, and perceived recommendations

  • Jakob D. JensenEmail author
  • Chelsea Ratcliff
  • Jeremy Weaver
  • Melinda M. Krakow
  • William Payton
  • Sherrie Loewen
Brief Report


In line with the health belief model, perceived barriers have proven to be a key determinant of intentions to screen for breast cancer. The standard measure of perceived barriers to breast cancer screening is an 11 item scale developed by Victoria Champion. However, perceived barriers emerge and change over time, and Champion’s perceived barriers scale was last revised in 1999. Moreover, the original scale did not address barriers which may be more pronounced in particular populations, such as congruity of action with faith. As part of the Utah Screening Project, a sample of women 40–74 (N = 341, Mage = 51.19, SD = 8.11) were recruited from four Utah counties in 2014 to complete a survey. The results revealed that the four new perceived barrier items explained 6.4 % of intentions to screen, above and beyond other predictors. In addition to barriers identified in past research, the current study identified several novel barriers including (a) concerns about negative effects to breast implants, (b) perceived conflict with faith, and the (c) perception that mammography is no longer recommended. The new perceived barriers items are useful to researchers interested in exploring barriers not addressed by the original instrument. The barriers also suggest potential belief-based targets and channels (e.g., plastic surgery clinics, faith-based interventions) for delivering mammography interventions.


Perceived barriers Health belief model Mammography Breast implants Faith News coverage 



Jakob D. Jensen is an Associate Professor in the Department of Communication and the Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah. Chelsea Ratcliff, Jeremy Weaver, William Payton, and Sherrie Loewen are graduate students in the Department of Communication at the University of Utah. Melinda Krakow is a post-doctoral fellow at the National Cancer Institute. This research was funded by a grant from the Utah Department of Health.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to report. No author has a financial conflict or incentive related to or influenced by this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jakob D. Jensen
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Chelsea Ratcliff
    • 1
  • Jeremy Weaver
    • 1
  • Melinda M. Krakow
    • 3
  • William Payton
    • 1
  • Sherrie Loewen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of CommunicationUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.Huntsman Cancer InstituteSalt Lake CityUSA
  3. 3.Division of Cancer PreventionNational Cancer InstituteBethesdaUSA

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