Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 114, Issue 1, pp 127–135 | Cite as

Smoking and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers: an update

  • Ophira Ginsburg
  • Parviz Ghadirian
  • Jan Lubinski
  • Cezary Cybulski
  • Henry Lynch
  • Susan Neuhausen
  • Charmaine Kim-Sing
  • Mark Robson
  • Susan Domchek
  • Claudine Isaacs
  • Jan Klijn
  • Susan Armel
  • William D. Foulkes
  • Nadine Tung
  • Pal Moller
  • Ping Sun
  • Steven A. Narod
  • Hereditary Breast Cancer Clinical Study Group
Epidemiology

Abstract

Among women with a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2, the risk of breast cancer is high, but it may be modified by exogenous and endogenous factors. There is concern that exposure to carcinogens in cigarette smoke may increase the risk of cancer in mutation carriers. We conducted a matched case–control study of 2,538 cases of breast cancer among women with a BRCA1 (n = 1,920) or a BRCA2 (n = 618) mutation. One non-affected mutation carrier control was selected for each case, matched on mutation, country of birth, and year of birth. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for oral contraceptive use and parity. Ever-smoking was not associated with an increased breast cancer risk among BRCA1 carriers (OR = 1.09; 95% CI 0.95–1.24) or among BRCA2 carriers (OR = 0.81; 95% CI 0.63–1.05). The result did not differ when cases were restricted to women who completed the questionnaire within two years of diagnosis. A modest, but significant increase in risk was seen among BRCA1 carriers with a past history of smoking (OR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.06–1.50), but not among current smokers (OR = 0.95; 0.81–1.12). There appears to be no increase in the risk of breast cancer associated with current smoking in BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. There is a possibility of an increased risk of breast cancer among BRCA1 carriers associated with past smoking. There may be different effects of carcinogens in BRCA mutation carriers, depending upon the timing of exposure.

Keywords

BRCA1 BRCA2 Smoking 

Abbreviations

BRCA1

Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1

BRCA2

Breast cancer susceptibility gene 2

OR

Odds ratio

CI

Confidence interval

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

RR

Relative risk

HR

Hazard ratio

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ophira Ginsburg
    • 1
  • Parviz Ghadirian
    • 2
  • Jan Lubinski
    • 3
  • Cezary Cybulski
    • 3
  • Henry Lynch
    • 4
  • Susan Neuhausen
    • 5
  • Charmaine Kim-Sing
    • 6
  • Mark Robson
    • 7
  • Susan Domchek
    • 8
  • Claudine Isaacs
    • 9
  • Jan Klijn
    • 10
  • Susan Armel
    • 11
  • William D. Foulkes
    • 12
  • Nadine Tung
    • 13
  • Pal Moller
    • 14
  • Ping Sun
    • 15
  • Steven A. Narod
    • 15
  • Hereditary Breast Cancer Clinical Study Group
    • 16
  1. 1.The Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer Research at Princess Margaret HospitalTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Epidemiology Research Unit, Centre Hospitalier de l’Universite de Montreal (CHUM) Hotel-Dieu, Faculty of MedicineUniversite de MontrealMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Pomeranian Medical UniversitySzczecinPoland
  4. 4.Department of Preventive Medicine and Public HealthCreighton University School of MedicineOmahaUSA
  5. 5.Department of EpidemiologyUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  6. 6.British Columbia Cancer AgencyVancouverCanada
  7. 7.Clinical Genetics, Department of MedicineMemorial-Sloan KetteringNew YorkUSA
  8. 8.Departments of Medicine and GeneticsUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  9. 9.Lombardi Cancer CenterGeorgetown University Medical CenterWashingtonUSA
  10. 10.Department of Medical Oncology, (Dr. Daniel den Hoed Kliniek) Rotterdam Cancer InstituteUniversity Hospital RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands
  11. 11.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity Health NetworkTorontoCanada
  12. 12.Program in Cancer Genetics, Departments of Oncology and Human GeneticsMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  13. 13.Beth Israel Deaconess HospitalBostonUSA
  14. 14.Department for Cancer GeneticsThe Norwegian Radium HospitalOsloNorway
  15. 15.Womens College Research Institute, Women’s College HospitalUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  16. 16.Womens College Research InstituteTorontoCanada

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