Advertisement

Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 165, Issue 2, pp 233–249 | Cite as

Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow Over a Vegetation-Like Canopy Modelled as Arrays of Bluff-Body Elements

  • Chao Yan
  • Wei-Xi Huang
  • Shi-Guang Miao
  • Gui-Xiang Cui
  • Zhao-Shun Zhang
Research Article

Abstract

Turbulent flow over a vegetation canopy under neutral atmospheric conditions is investigated using large-eddy simulation. Each model tree, which consists of a sphere-shaped tree crown and a cylindrical trunk, is fully resolved. The resulting turbulence statistics and the drag force on the vegetation agree well with measurements from the corresponding wind-tunnel experiment described by Böhm et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol, 146:393–419, 2013). Statistically, this kind of model canopy exhibits both vegetation and bluff-body-flow characteristics. The time-averaged flow skims over the top of the underlying canopy, forming a low-momentum recirculation zone on the lee-side of the bluff elements, which causes significant dispersive stress within the canopy layer. Two other numerical representations of vegetation canopies, referred to as the drag-element and drag-crown approaches, have also been developed to assess the performance of simulations. Turbulence statistics suggest that the canopy shear layer interferes with wakes behind stems and crowns. The drag-crown approach yields better agreement between numerical results and experimental measurements than does the traditional drag-element approach, thus providing a promising numerical model for simulating canopy turbulence.

Keywords

Canopy representation Canopy turbulence Large-eddy simulation Vegetation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11322221 and 11132005, and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China under Grant No. 2015DFA20870. The authors would also like to thank the Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology for the support in parallel computing.

References

  1. Bailey BN, Stoll R, Pardyjak ER, Mahaffee WF (2014) Effect of vegetative canopy architecture on vertical transport of massless particles. Atmos Environ 95:480–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Belcher SE, Jerram N, Hunt JCR (2003) Adjustment of a turbulent boundary layer to a canopy of roughness elements. J Fluid Mech 488:369–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Böhm M, Finnigan JJ, Raupach M, Hughes D (2013) Turbulence structure within and above a canopy of bluff elements. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 146:393–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bohrer G, Katul G, Walko R, Avissar R (2009) Exploring the effects of microscale structural heterogeneity of forest canopies using large-eddy simulations. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 132:351–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bou-Zeid E, Parlange MB, Meneveau C (2007) On the parameterization of surface roughness at regional scales. J Atmos Sci 64:216–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brunet Y, Finnigan JJ, Raupach MR (1994) A wind tunnel study of air flow in waving wheat: Single-point velocity statistics. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 70:95–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheng H, Castro IP (2002) Near wall flow over urban-like roughness. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 104:229–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coceal O, Thomas TG, Castro IP, Belcher SE (2006) Mean flow and turbulence statistics over groups of urban-like cubical obstacles. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 121:491–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coceal O, Dobre A, Thomas TG, Belcher SE (2007) Structure of turbulent flow over regular arrays of cubical roughness. J Fluid Mech 589:375–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dupont S, Brunet Y (2008) Influence of foliar density profile on canopy flow: a large-eddy simulation study. Agric For Meteorol 148:976–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dwyer MJ, Patton EG, Shaw RH (1997) Turbulent kinetic energy budgets from a large-eddy simulation of airflow above and within a forest canopy. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 84:23–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Finnigan JJ (2000) Turbulence in plant canopies. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 32:519–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Finnigan JJ, Shaw R, Patton E (2009) Turbulence structure above a vegetation canopy. J Fluid Mech 637:387–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fitzmaurice L, Shaw R, Paw UK, Patton E (2004) Three-dimensional scalar microfront systems in a large-eddy simulation of vegetation canopy flow. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 112:107–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Garratt JR (1992) The atmospheric boundary layer. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 316 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Jackson PS (1981) On the displacement height in the logarithmic velocity profile. J Fluid Mech 111:15–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jiménez J (2004) Turbulent flows over rough walls. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 36:173–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kono T, Tamura T, Ashie Y (2010) Numerical investigations of mean winds within canopies of regularly arrayed cubical buildings under neutral stability conditions. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 134:131–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Leonardi S, Castro IP (2010) Channel flow over large cube roughness: a direct numerical simulation study. J Fluid Mech 651:519–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Meneveau C, Lund TS, Cabot WH (1996) A Lagrangian dynamic subgrid-scale model of turbulence. J Fluid Mech 319:353–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Morton KW, Mayers DF (2005) Numerical solution of partial differential equations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 278 ppGoogle Scholar
  22. Nakai T, Sumida A, Daikoku K, Matsumoto K, van der Molen MK, Kodama Y, Kononov AV, Maximov TC, Dolman AJ, Yabuki H, Hara T, Ohta T (2008) Parameterisation of aerodynamic roughness over boreal, cool- and warm-temperate forests. Agric For Meteorol 148:1916–1925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nepf HM (2012) Flow and transport in regions with aquatic vegetation. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 44:123–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Patton E, Finnigan JJ (2013) Canopy turbulence. In: Fernando HJS (ed) Handbook of environmental fluid dynamics. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, pp 311–327Google Scholar
  25. Poggi D, Porporato A, Ridolfi L, Albertson JD, Katul GG (2004) The effect of vegetation density on canopy sublayer turbulence. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 111:565–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Raupach MR, Shaw RH (1982) Averaging procedures for flow within vegetation canopies. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 22:79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Raupach MR, Antonia RA, Rajagopalan S (1991) Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers. Appl Mech Rev 44:1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Raupach MR, Finnigan JJ, Brunet Y (1996) Coherent eddies and turbulence in vegetation canopies: the mixing-layer analogy. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 78:351–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schlegel F, Stiller J, Bienert A, Maas H, Queck R, Bernhofer C (2012) Large-eddy simulation of inhomogeneous canopy flows using high resolution terrestrial laser scanning data. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 142:223–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schlegel F, Stiller J, Bienert A, Maas H, Queck R, Bernhofer C (2015) Large-eddy simulation study of the effects on flow of a heterogeneous forest at sub-tree resolution. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 154:27–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Segalini A, Fransson JM, Alfredsson PH (2013) Scaling laws in canopy flows: a wind-tunnel analysis. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 148:269–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shaw RH, Schumann U (1992) Large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow above and within a forest. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 61:47–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shen S, Leclerc MY (1997) Modeling the turbulence structure in the canopy layer. Agric For Meteorol 87:3–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Stoll R, Porté-agel F (2006) Effect of roughness on surface boundary conditions for large-eddy simulation. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 118:169–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Su HB, Shaw R, Paw UK (2000) Two-point correlation analysis of neutrally stratified flow within and above a forest from large-eddy simulation. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 94:423–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Watanabe T (2004) Large-eddy simulation of coherent turbulence structures associated with scalar ramps over plant canopies. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 112:307–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yaglom AM (1979) Similarity laws for constant-pressure and pressure-gradient turbulent wall flows. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 11:505–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yang B, Raupach M, Shaw R, Paw KT, Morse A (2006) Large-eddy simulation of turbulent Flow across a forest edge. Part I: flow statistics. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 120:377–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yue W (2007) Large-eddy simulation of plant canopy flows using plant-scale representation. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 124:183–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chao Yan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wei-Xi Huang
    • 1
  • Shi-Guang Miao
    • 2
  • Gui-Xiang Cui
    • 1
  • Zhao-Shun Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Engineering MechanicsTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Institute of Urban MeteorologyChina Meteorological AdministrationBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations