Detection of Entrainment Influences on Surface-Layer Measurements and Extension of Monin–Obukhov Similarity Theory
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- van de Boer, A., Moene, A.F., Graf, A. et al. Boundary-Layer Meteorol (2014) 152: 19. doi:10.1007/s10546-014-9920-8
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We present a method to detect influences of boundary-layer processes on surface-layer measurements, using statistics and spectra of surface-layer variables only. We validated our detection method with boundary-layer measurements. Furthermore, we confirm that Monin–Obukhov similarity functions fit well to temperature-variance data obtained at two different homogeneous surfaces. However, we found that humidity variance measurements deviate from the universal functions above one of the two studied surfaces for days on which entrained air reached the surface layer. These results confirm that Monin–Obukhov similarity theory should be used with care in the analysis of surface-layer data. Finally, we propose the use of an extra term in flux-variance relations that depends on the entrainment ratio for humidity and on the boundary-layer height. If boundary-layer measurements are not available, we show how the entrainment ratio for humidity can be approximated from the skewness of the humidity distribution.