Skip to main content

A New Aerodynamic Parametrization for Real Urban Surfaces

Abstract

This study conducted large-eddy simulations (LES) of fully developed turbulent flow within and above explicitly resolved buildings in Tokyo and Nagoya, Japan. The more than 100 LES results, each covering a 1,000 \(\times \) 1,000 m\(^{2}\) area with 2-m resolution, provide a database of the horizontally-averaged turbulent statistics and surface drag corresponding to various urban morphologies. The vertical profiles of horizontally-averaged wind velocity mostly follow a logarithmic law even for districts with high-rise buildings, allowing estimates of aerodynamic parameters such as displacement height and roughness length using the von Karman constant \(=\) 0.4. As an alternative derivation of the aerodynamic parameters, a regression of roughness length and variable Karman constant was also attempted, using a displacement height physically determined as the central height of drag action. Although both the regression methods worked, the former gives larger (smaller) values of displacement height (roughness length) by 20–25 % than the latter. The LES database clearly illustrates the essential difference in bulk flow properties between real urban surfaces and simplified arrays. The vertical profiles of horizontally-averaged momentum flux were influenced by the maximum building height and the standard deviation of building height, as well as conventional geometric parameters such as the average building height, frontal area index, and plane area index. On the basis of these investigations, a new aerodynamic parametrization of roughness length and displacement height in terms of the five geometric parameters described above was empirically proposed. The new parametrizations work well for both real urban morphologies and simplified model geometries.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

References

  • Andreas EL, Claffey KJ, Jordan RE, Fairall CW, Guest PS, Persson CW, Grachev AA (2006) Evaluations of the von Karman constant in the atmospheric surface layer. J Fluid Mech 559:117–149

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Araya G, Castillo L, Meneveau C, Jansen K (2011) A dynamic multi-scale approach for turbulent inflow boundary conditions in spatially developing flows. J Fluid Mech 670:581–605

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bou-Zeid E, Overney J, Rogers BD, Parlange MB (2009) The effects of building representation and clustering in large-eddy simulations of flows in urban canopies. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 132:415–436

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Castillo MC, Inagaki A, Kanda M (2011) The effects of inner and outer layer turbulence of a convective boundary layer in the near-neutral inertial sublayer over an urban-like surface. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 140:453–469

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cheng H, Castro IP (2002) Near wall flow over urban-like roughness. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 104:229–259

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cheng H, Hayden P, Robins AG, Castro IP (2007) Flow over cube arrays of different packing densities. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 95:715–740

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grimmond CSB, Oke TR (1999) Aerodynamics properties of urban areas derived from analysis of surface form. J Appl Meteorol 38:1262–1292

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grimmond CSB, Blackett M, Best MJ, Barlow J, Baik J-J, Belcher SE, Bohnenstengel SI, Calmet I, Chen F, Dandou A, Fortuniak K, Gouvea ML, Hamdi R, Hendry M, Kawai T, Kawamoto Y, Kondo H, Krayenho ES, Lee S-H, Loridan T, Martilli A, Masson V, Miao S, Oleson K, Pigeon G, Porson A, Ryu Y-H, Salamanca F, ShashuaBar L, Steeneveld G-J, Tombrou M, Voogt J, Young D, Zhang N (2010) The international urban energy balance models comparison project: first results from phase 1. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 49:1268–1292

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grimmond CSB, Blackett M, Best MJ, Baik J-J, Belcher SE, Beringer J, Bohnenstengel SI, Calmet I, Chen F, Coutts A, Dandou A, Fortuniak K, Gouvea ML, Hamdi R, Hendry M, Kanda M, Kawai T, Kawamoto Y, Kondo H, Krayenho ES, Lee S-H, Loridan T, Martilli A, Masson V, Miao S, Oleson K, Ooka R, Pigeon G, Porson A, Ryu Y-H, Salamanca F, Steeneveld G-J, Tombrou M, Voogt JA, Young DT, Zhang N (2011) Initial results from phase 2 of the international urban energy balance model comparison. Int J Climatol 31:244–272

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hagishima A, Tanimoto J, Nagayama K, Meno S (2009) Aerodynamic parameters of regular arrays of rectangular blocks with various geometries. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 132:315–337

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hattori Y, Moeng CH, Suto H, Tanaka N, Hirakuchi H (2010) Wind-tunnel experiment on logarithmic-layer turbulence under the influence of overlying detached eddies. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 134:269–283

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hutchins N, Marusic I (2007) Evidence of very long meandering features in the logarithmic region of turbulent boundary layers. J Fluid Mech 579:1–28

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Inagaki A, Kanda M (2008) Turbulent flow similarity over an array of cubes in near-neutrally stratified atmospheric flow. J Fluid Mech 615:101–120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Inagaki A, Kanda M (2010) Organized structure of active turbulence developed over an array of cube within the logarithmic layer of atmospheric flow. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 135:209–228

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Inagaki A, Castillo MC, Yamashita Y, Kanda M, Takimoto H (2012) Large eddy simulation study of coherent flow structures within a cubical canopy. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 142:207–222

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson PS (1981) On the displacement height in the logarithmic velocity profile. J Fluid Mech 111:15–25

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jiang D, Jiang W, Liu H, Sun J (2008) Systematic influence of different building spacing, height and layout on mean wind and turbulent characteristics within and over urban building arrays. Wind Struct 11:275–289

    Google Scholar 

  • Kanda M (2006) Large-eddy simulations on the effects of surface geometry of building arrays on turbulent organized structures. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 118:151–168

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kanda M, Moriizumi T (2009) Momentum and heat transfer over urban-likes surfaces. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 131:385–401

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kanda M, Moriwaki R, Kasamatsu F (2004) Large eddy simulation of turbulent organized structure within and above explicitly resolved cube arrays. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 112:343–368

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kastener-Klein P, Rotach MW (2004) Mean flow and turbulence characteristics in an urban roughness sublayer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 111:55–84

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leonardi S, Castro IP (2010) Channel flow over large cube roughness: a direct numerical simulation study. J Fluid Mech 651:519–539

    Google Scholar 

  • Letzel MO (2007) High resolution LES of turbulent flow around buildings. PhD dissertation, University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany, 126 pp

  • Letzel MO, Krane M, Raasch S (2008) High resolution urban large-eddy simulation studies from street canyon to neighborhood scale. Atmos Environ 42:8770–8784

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Letzel MO, Helmke C, Ng E, An X, Lai A, Raasch S (2012) LES case study on pedestrian level ventilation in two neighbourhoods in Hong Kong. Meteorol Z 21:575–589

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Macdonald RW, Hall DJ, Walker R, Spanton AM (1998a) Wind tunnel measurements of wind speed within simulated urban arrays. BRE Client Report CR 243/98, Building Research Establishment

  • Macdonald RW, Griffiths RF, Hall DJ (1998b) An improved method for the estimation of surface roughness of obstacle arrays. Atmos Environ 32:1857–1864

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nakayama H, Takemi T, Nagai H (2011) LES analysis of the aerodynamic surface properties for turbulent flows over building arrays with various geometries. J Appl Meteorol 50:1692–1712

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nozu T, Tamura T, Okuda Y, Sanada S (2008) LES of the flow and building wall pressures in the centre of Tokyo. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 96:1762–1773

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Park SB, Baik JJ, Raasch S, Letzel MO (2012) A large-eddy simulation study of thermal effects on turbulent flow and dispersion in and above a street canyon. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 51:829–841

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Raasch S, Schröter S (2001) A large-eddy simulation model performing on massively parallel computers. Meteorol Z 10:363–372

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ratti C, Di Sabatino S, Britter R, Brown M, Caton F, Burian S (2002) Analysis of 3-D urban databases with respect to pollution dispersion for a number of European and American cities. Water Air Soil Pollut Focus 2:459–469

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rotach MW (1999) On the influence of the urban roughness sublayer on turbulence and dispersion. Atmos Environ 33:4001–4008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Santiago JL, Coceal O, Martilli A, Belcher SE (2008) Variation of the sectional drag coefficient of a group of buildings with packing density. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 128:445–457

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tamura T (2008) Towards practical use of LES in wind engineering. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 96:1451–1471

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tomkins CD, Adrian RJ (2003) Spanwise structure and scale growth in turbulent boundary layers. J Fluid Mech 490:37–74

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Varquez ACG, Kanda M, Nakayoshi M, Adachi S, Nakano K, Yoshikane T, Tsugawa M, Kusaka H (2012) Tokyo localized rainfall simulation using improved urban and sea parametrized WRF-ARW. In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference for urban climate, ID79

  • Xie Z-T, Castro IP (2009) Large-eddy simulation for flow and dispersion in urban streets. Atmos Environ 43:2174–2185

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xie Z-T, Coceal O, Castro IP (2008) Large-eddy simulation of flows over random urban-like obstacles. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 129:1–23

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zaki SH, Hagishima A, Tanimot J, Ikegaya N (2011) Aerodynamic parameters of urban building arrays with random geometries. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 138:99–120

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research was financially supported by Research Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA), a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B): 21360233, and a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B): 23760454 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. This research was also supported by the German Research Foundation under Grant RA 617/15-2.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Manabu Kanda.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kanda, M., Inagaki, A., Miyamoto, T. et al. A New Aerodynamic Parametrization for Real Urban Surfaces. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 148, 357–377 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-013-9818-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-013-9818-x

Keywords

  • Aerodynamic parametrization
  • Displacement height
  • Large-eddy simulation
  • Real urban surfaces
  • Three-dimensional building map