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Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 148, Issue 2, pp 419–436 | Cite as

Wake Response to an Ocean-Feedback Mechanism: Madeira Island Case Study

  • Rui M. A. CaldeiraEmail author
  • Ricardo Tomé
Article

Abstract

We focus on an island wake episode that occurred in the Madeira Archipelago region of the north-east Atlantic at \(32.5^{\circ }\mathrm{N}, 17^{\circ }\mathrm{W}\). The Weather Research and Forecasting numerical model was used in a (one-way) downscaling mode, considering initial and boundary conditions from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts system. The current literature emphasizes adiabatic effects on the dynamical aspects of atmospheric wakes. Changes in mountain height and consequently its relation to the atmospheric inversion layer should explain the shift in wake regimes, from a ‘strong-wake’ to ‘weak-wake’ scenario. Nevertheless, changes in sea-surface temperature variability in the lee of an island can induce similar regime shifts because of exposure to stronger solar radiation. Increase in evaporation contributes to the enhancement of convection and thus to the uplift of the stratified atmospheric layer above the critical height, with subsequent internal gravity wave activity.

Keywords

Air-sea interaction Convective boundary layer Inertial gravity waves Marine atmospheric boundary layer Resonance waves 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was carried out within the scope of two research projects funded by the Portuguese National Science Foundation (POCI/MAR/57265/2004 and PPCDT/MAR/57265/2004). We thank Annick Terpstra and Gert-Jan Steeneveld from Wageningen Universiteit, Netherlands, for the inspiring report. This work has led to a recent EUFAR (European Facility for Airborne Research) campaign in Madeira, which is expected to continue to fuel discussion of ocean feedback mechanisms affecting wake-regime evolution. Comments from two anonymous reviewers have substantially improved the manuscript.

Supplementary material

10546_2013_9817_MOESM1_ESM.mp4 (879 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (mp4 879 KB)
10546_2013_9817_MOESM2_ESM.mp4 (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (mp4 1088 KB)
10546_2013_9817_MOESM3_ESM.mp4 (1 mb)
Supplementary material 3 (mp4 1038 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CIIMAR—Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental ResearchPortoPortugal
  2. 2.CCM—Center for Mathematical SciencesUniversity of MadeiraFunchal, MadeiraPortugal
  3. 3.CCMMG—Centro do Clima, Meteorologia e Mudanças GlobaisUniversity of Azores, Polo Universitário de Angra do HeroísmoAngra do HeroísmoPortugal
  4. 4.Instituto Dom Luiz (IDL)Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa Campo GrandeLisbonPortugal

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