Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 124, Issue 3, pp 449–463 | Cite as

Turbulence spectra in the near-neutral surface layer over the Loess Plateau in China

  • Wei LiEmail author
  • Tetsuya Hiyama
  • Nakako Kobayashi
Original Paper


We present the power spectra of wind velocity and the cospectra of momentum and heat fluxes observed for different wind directions over flat terrain and a large valley on the Loess Plateau. The power spectra of longitudinal (u) and lateral (v) wind speeds satisfy the −5/3 power law in the inertial subrange, but do not vary as observed in previous studies within the low frequency range. The u spectrum measured at 32 m height for flow from the valley shows a power deficit at intermediate frequencies, while the v spectrum at 32 m downwind of the valley reaches another peak in the low frequency range at the same frequency as the u spectrum. The corresponding peak wavelength is consistent with the observed length scale of the convective outer layer at the site. The v spectrum for flat terrain shows a spectral gap at mid frequencies while obeying inner layer scaling in its inertial subrange, suggesting two sources of turbulence in the surface layer. All the spectra and cospectra from the valley direction show a height dependency over the three levels.


Cospectra Loess Plateau Power spectra Spectral gap Topography 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bowen AJ and Lindley D (1977). A Wind-tunnel investigation of the wind speed and turbulence characteristics close to the ground over various escarpment shapes. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 12: 259–271 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Emeis S, Frank HP and Fiedler F (1995). Modification of air flow over an escarpment—results from the Hjardemål experiment. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 74: 131–161 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Founda D, Tombrou M, Lalas DP and Asimakopoulos DN (1997). Some measurements of turbulence characteristics over complex terrain. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 83: 221–245 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gallagher MW, Choularton TW and Hill MK (1988). Some observations of the airflow over a large hill of moderate slope.. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 42: 229–250 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Högström U, Bergström H and Alexandersson H (1982). Turbulence characteristics in a near neutrally stratified urban atmosphere. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 23: 449–472 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Högström U, Hunt JCR and Smedman A (2002). Theory and measurements for turbulence spectra and variances in the atmospheric neutral surface layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 103: 101–124 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hong J, Choi T, Ishikawa H and Kim J (2004). Turbulence structures in the near-neutral surface layer on the tibetan plateau. Geophys Res Lett 31: L15106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hunt JCR and Carlotti P (2001). Statistical structure at the wall of the high reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. Flow Turbulence Combustion 66: 453–475 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hunt JCR and Morrison JF (2000). Eddy structure in turbulent boundary layers. Euro J Mech B Fluids 19: 673–694 Google Scholar
  10. Kaimal JC, Finnigan JJ, (1994) Atmospheric boundary layer flows. Oxford University Press, New York, 289 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Kaimal JC, Wyngaard JC, Izumi Y and Coté OR (1972). Spectral characteristics of surface-layer turbulence. Quart J Roy Meteorol Soc 98: 563–589 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kimura R, Kamichika M, Takayama N, Matsuoka N and Zhang XC (2004a). Heat balance and soil moisture in the Loess Plateau, China. J Agric Meteorol 60: 103–113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kimura R, Takayama N, Kamichika M and Matsuoka N (2004b). Soil water content and heat balance in the Loess Plateau—determination of parameters in the three-layered soil model and experimental result of model calculation. J Agric Meteorol 60: 55–65 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Marht L (1998). Flux sampling errors for aircraft and towers. J Atmos Oceanic Technol 15: 416–429 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. McNaughton KG, (2004a) New models of the unstable atmospheric surface layer. Proceedings of the 6th International Study Conference on GEWEX in Asia and GAME, Dec, 2004, Kyoto, JapanGoogle Scholar
  16. McNaughton KG (2004b). Turbulence structure of the unstable atmospheric surface layer and transition to the outer layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 112: 199–221 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McNaughton KG, (2004c) On the budget of turbulence kinetic energy in the unstable atmospheric surface layer. 16 Symp. Boundary Layers & Turbulence, 9–13 July, Portland, Maine, USA. Amer Meteorol Soc Paper 7.7Google Scholar
  18. McNaughton KG and Brunet Y (2002). Townsend’s hypothesis, coherent structures and Monin–Obukhov similarity. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 102: 161–175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McNaughton KG and Laubach J (2000). Power spectra and cospectra for wind and scalars in a disturbed surface layer at the base of an advective inversion. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 96: 143–185 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Panofsky HA, Larko D, Lipschutz R, Stone G, Bradley EF, Bowen AJ and Hojstrup J (1982). Spectra of velocity components over complex terrain. Quart J Roy Meteorol Soc 108: 215–230 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Takayama N, Kimura R, Kamichika M, Matsuoka N and Zhang XC (2004). Climatic features of rainfall in the Loess Plateau in China. J Agric Meteorol 60: 173–189 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Townsend AA (1961). Equilibrium layers and wall turbulence. J Fluid Mech 11: 97–120 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Environmental StudiesNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research CenterNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan

Personalised recommendations