Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 124, Issue 2, pp 251–268 | Cite as

On the extension of the wind profile over homogeneous terrain beyond the surface boundary layer

  • Sven-Erik Gryning
  • Ekaterina Batchvarova
  • Burghard Brümmer
  • Hans Jørgensen
  • Søren Larsen
Original Paper


Analysis of profiles of meteorological measurements from a 160 m high mast at the National Test Site for wind turbines at Høvsøre (Denmark) and at a 250 m high TV tower at Hamburg (Germany) shows that the wind profile based on surface-layer theory and Monin-Obukhov scaling is valid up to a height of 50–80 m. At higher levels deviations from the measurements progressively occur. For applied use an extension to the wind profile in the surface layer is formulated for the entire boundary layer, with emphasis on the lowest 200–300 m and considering only wind speeds above 3 m s−1 at 10 m height. The friction velocity is taken to decrease linearly through the boundary layer. The wind profile length scale is composed of three component length scales. In the surface layer the first length scale is taken to increase linearly with height with a stability correction following Monin-Obukhov similarity. Above the surface layer the second length scale (LMBL) becomes independent of height but not of stability, and at the top of the boundary layer the third length scale is assumed to be negligible. A simple model for the combined length scale that controls the wind profile and its stability dependence is formulated by inverse summation. Based on these assumptions the wind profile for the entire boundary layer is derived. A parameterization of LMBL is formulated using the geostrophic drag law, which relates friction velocity and geostrophic wind. The empirical parameterization of the resistance law functions A and B in the geostrophic drag law is uncertain, making it impractical. Therefore an expression for the length scale, LMBL, for applied use is suggested, based on measurements from the two sites.


Boundary-layer height Boundary-layer wind profile Length scale Stability correction Wind profile 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arya SPS (1988) Introduction to micrometeorology. Academic Press, San Diego, California, 307 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Batchvarova E, Gryning S-E (1991) Applied Model for the growth of the daytime mixed layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 56:261–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blackadar AK (1962) The vertical distribution of wind and turbulent exchange in a neutral atmosphere. J Geophys Res 67:3095–3102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blackadar AK, Tennekes H (1968) Asymptotic similarity in neutral barotrophic planetary boundary layers. J Atmos Sci 25:1015–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown AR, Beljaars ACM, Hersbach H (2006) Errors in parameterizations of convective boundary-layer turbulent momentum mixing. Quart J Roy Meteorol Soc 132:1859–1876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brümmer B (1976) The coefficients of the mechanical resistance law over the trophical ocean. Contrib Atm Phys 49:299–305Google Scholar
  7. Brümmer B (1991) Wind shear at tilted inversions. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 57:295–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Busch NE, Panofsky HA (1968) Recent spectra of atmospheric turbulence. Quart J Roy Meteorol Soc 94:361–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Businger J, Wyngaard JC, Izumi Y, Bradley EF (1971) Flux profile relationships in the atmospheric surface layer. J Atmos Sci 28:181–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caldwell DR, van Atta CW, Heland KH (1972) A laboratory study of the turbulent Ekman layer. Geophys Fluid Dyn 3:125–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carl DM, Tarbell TC, Panofsky HA (1973) Profiles of wind and temperature from towers over homogeneous terrain. J Atmos Sci 30:788–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dyer AJ (1974) A review of flux-profile relationships. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 7:363–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Garratt JR, Wyngaard JC, Francey RJ (1982) Winds in the atmospheric boundary layer - prediction and observation. J Atmos Sci 39:1307–1316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Grachev AA, Fairall CW, Bradley EF (2000) Convective profile constants revisited. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 94:495–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hess GD, Garratt JR (2002a) Evaluating models of the neutral, barotrophic planetary boundary layer using integral measures: Part I. overview. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 104:333–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hess GD, Garratt JR (2002b) Evaluating models of the neutral, barotrophic planetary boundary layer using integral measures: Part II. modelling observed conditions. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 104:359–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Holtslag AAM (1984) Estimates of diabatic wind speed profiles from near-surface weather observations. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 29:225–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Högström U (1988) Non-dimensional wind and temperature profiles in the atmospheric surface layer: a re-evaluation. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 42:55–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. LeMone, MA, Zhou M, Moeng C-H, Lenschow DH, Miller LJ, Grossman RL (1999) An observational study of wind profiles in the baroclinic convective mixed layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 90:47–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mahrt L (1975) The influence of momentum advections on a well-mixed layer. Quart J Roy Meteorol Soc 101:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Panofsky H (1973) Tower micrometeorology. In: Haugen DA (ed) Workshop on Micrometeorology, American Meteorological Society, pp 151–176Google Scholar
  22. Rotach MW, Vogt R, Bernhofer C, Batchvarova E, Christen A, Clappier A, Feddersen B, Gryning S-E, Martucci G, Mayer H, Mitev V, Oke TR, Parlow E, Richner H, Roth M, Roulet Y-A, Ruffieux D, Salmond JA, Schatzmann M, Voogt JA (2005) BUBBLE – an urban boundary layer meteorology project. Theor Appl Climatol 81:231–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Seibert P, Beyrich F, Gryning S-E, Joffre S, Rasmussen A, Tercier P (2000) Review and intercomparison of operational methods for the determination of the mixing height. Atmos Environ 34:1001–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Stull R (1988) An introduction to boundary layer meteorology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 666 ppGoogle Scholar
  25. Tennekes H (1973) Similarity laws and scale relations in planetary boundary layers. In: Haugen (ed) Workshop on Micrometeorology, American Meteorological Society, pp 177–216Google Scholar
  26. Troen I, Petersen EL (1989) European Wind Atlas. Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, 656 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Yokoyama O Gamo M, Yamamoto S (1979) The vertical profiles of the turbulent quantities in the atmospheric boundary layer. J Meteorol Soc Japan 57(3):264–272Google Scholar
  28. Zilitinkevich SS, Mironov DV (1996) A multi-limit formulation for the equilibrium depth of a stably stratified boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 81:325–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zilitinkevich SS, Esau N (2002) On integral measures of the neutral barotrophic planetary boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 104:371–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zilitinkevich SS, Esau N (2005) Resistance and heat-transfer laws for stable and neutral planetary boundary layers: old theory advanced and re-evaluated. Quart J Roy Meteorol Soc 131:1863–1892CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sven-Erik Gryning
    • 1
  • Ekaterina Batchvarova
    • 1
    • 2
  • Burghard Brümmer
    • 3
  • Hans Jørgensen
    • 1
  • Søren Larsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Risø National LaboratoryRoskildeDenmark
  2. 2.National Institute of Meteorology and HydrologyBulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria
  3. 3.Meteorological InstituteUniversity of HamburgHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations