Biology & Philosophy

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 319–346 | Cite as

The causes and scope of political egalitarianism during the Last Glacial: a multi-disciplinary perspective

  • Doron Shultziner
  • Thomas Stevens
  • Martin Stevens
  • Brian A. Stewart
  • Rebecca J. HannaganEmail author
  • Giulia Saltini-Semerari


This paper reviews and synthesizes emerging multi-disciplinary evidence toward understanding the development of social and political organization in the Last Glacial. Evidence for the prevalence and scope of political egalitarianism is reviewed and the biological, social, and environmental influences on this mode of human organization are further explored. Viewing social and political organization in the Last Glacial in a much wider, multi-disciplinary context provides the footing for coherent theory building and hypothesis testing by which to further explore human political systems. We aim to overcome the claim that our ancestors’ form of social organization is untestable, as well as counter a degree of exaggeration regarding possibilities for sedentism, population densities, and hierarchical structures prior to the Holocene with crucial advances from disparate disciplines.


Climate change Last glacial Nomadic foragers Political egalitarianism Social organization 



The Political Egalitarianism Project (PEP) members would like to extend their appreciation to Frans de Waal, Christopher Boehm, Larry Arnhart, Melvin Konner, Richard B. Lee, and Arnon Dattner, and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of this paper.


  1. Alexander R (1979) Evolution and culture. In: Chagnon NA, Irons W (eds) Evolutionary biology and human behavior: an anthropological perspective. Duxbury Press, North Scituate, MassGoogle Scholar
  2. Alley RB, Marotzke J, Nordhaus WD, Overpeck JT, Peteet DM, Pielke RA et al (2003) Abrupt climate change. Science 299:2005–2010Google Scholar
  3. Altabet MA, Higginson MJ, Murray DW (2002) The effect of millennial-scale changes in Arabian Sea denitrification on atmospheric CO2. Nature 415:159–162Google Scholar
  4. Ames KM (1981) The evolution of social ranking on the northwest coast of North-America. Am Antiquity 46:789–805Google Scholar
  5. Ames KM (1985) Hierarchies, stress and logistical strategies among hunter-gatherers in Northwestern North America. In: Price TD, Brown JA (eds) Prehistoric hunter-gatherers: the emergence of cultural complexity. Academic Press, New York, pp 155–180Google Scholar
  6. Ames KM (1991) The archaeology of the longue-duree–temporal and spatial scale in the evolution of social complexity on the southern northwest coast. Antiquity 65:935–945Google Scholar
  7. Ames KM (1994) The northwest coast–complex hunter-gatherers, ecology, and social evolution. Ann Rev Anthropol 23:209–229Google Scholar
  8. Antoine P, Rousseau DD, Fuchs M, Hatté C, Gautier C, Marković SB, Jovanović M, Gaudeenyi T, Moine O, Rossignol J (2009) High resolution record of the last climatic cycle in the Southern Carpathian basin (Surduk, Vojvodina, Serbia). Quat Int 198:19–36Google Scholar
  9. Bahn PG (1990) Motes and beams–a further response to white on the upper Paleolithic. Curr Anthropol 31:71–76Google Scholar
  10. Bailey G (2004) World prehistory from the margins: the role of coastlines in human evolution. J Interdis Stud History Archaeol 1:39–50Google Scholar
  11. Bailey G, Spikins P (2008) The Mesolithic of Europe. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  12. Barclay HB (1982) People without government: an anthropology of anarchism. Kahn & Averill with Cienfuegos Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Barham LS, Mitchell PJ (2008) The first Africans: African Archaeology from the earliest toolmakers to most recent foragers. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  14. Barker G (2006) The agricultural revolution in prehistory: why did foragers become farmers?. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  15. Barton CM, Clark GA, Cohen AE (1994) Art as information–explaining upper paleolithic art in Western-Europe. World Archaeol 26:185–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bar-Yosef O (2002) Natufian: a complex society of foragers. In: Fitzhugh B, Habu J (eds) Beyond foraging and collecting: evolutionary change in hunter-gatherer settlement systems. Kluwer, New York, pp 91–147Google Scholar
  17. Bar-Yosef O, Belfer-Cohen A (1992) From foraging to farming in the Mediterranean Levant. In: Gebauer AB, Price TD (eds) Transitions to agriculture in prehistory, monographs in world prehistory 4. Prehistory Press, Madison, pp 21–48Google Scholar
  18. Behar D, Villems R, Soodyall H, Blue-Smith J, Pereira L, Metspalu E, Scozzari R, Makkan H, Tzur S, Comas D (2008) The dawn of human matrilineal diversity. Am J Human Genet 82:1130–1140Google Scholar
  19. Behrensmeyer AK (2006) Climate change and human evolution. Science 311:476–478Google Scholar
  20. Binford LR (1980) Willow smoke and dogs tails–hunter-gatherer settlement systems and archaeological site formation. Am Antiquity 45:4–20Google Scholar
  21. Binford LR (1983) In pursuit of the past: decoding the archaeological record. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  22. Bliege Bird R, Smith EA (2005) Signaling theory, strategic interaction, and symbolic capital. Curr Anthropol 46:221–248Google Scholar
  23. Boehm C (1993) Egalitarian behavior and reverse dominance hierarchy. Curr Anthropol 34:227–254Google Scholar
  24. Boehm C (1999) Hierarchy in the Forest: the evolution of egalitarian behavior. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  25. Boehm C (2003) Global conflict resolution: an anthropological diagnosis of problems with world governance. In: Bloom RW, Dess N (eds) Evolutionary psychology and violence: a primer for policymakers and public policy advocates Westport, Conn. Praeger, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Bond GC (1995) Oceanography–climate and the conveyor. Nature 377:383–384Google Scholar
  27. Bond G, Kromer B, Beer J, Muscheler R, Evans MN, Showers W et al (2001) Persistent solar influence on north Atlantic climate during the Holocene. Science 294:2130–2136Google Scholar
  28. Boone JL (2000) Status signaling, social power, and lineage survival. In: Diehl MW (ed) Hierachies in action: Cui Bono?. Center for Archeological Studies, CarbondaleGoogle Scholar
  29. Borziyak IA (1993) Subsistence practices of late Palaeolithic groups along the Dnestr River and its tributaries. In: Soffer O, Praslov ND (eds) From Kostenki to Clovis: upper Palaeolithic-Paleo-Indian Adaptations. Plenum Press, New York, pp 67–86Google Scholar
  30. Broecker WS (1997) Thermohaline circulation, the Achilles heel of our climate system: will man-made CO2 upset the current balance? Science 278:1582–1588Google Scholar
  31. Brook EJ, Sowers T, Orchardo J (1996) Rapid variations in atmospheric methane concentration during the past 110, 000 years. Science 273:1087–1091Google Scholar
  32. Burns SJ, Fleitmann D, Matter M, Neff U, Mangini A (2001) Speleothem evidence from Oman for continental pluvial events during interglacial periods. Geology 29:623–626Google Scholar
  33. Carr C (1984) The nature of organization of intrasite archaeological records and spatial analytic approaches to their investigation. In: Schiffer MB (ed) Advances in archaeological method and theory, vol 7. Academic Press, New York, pp 103–222Google Scholar
  34. Cashdan EA (1980) Egalitarianism among hunters and gatherers. Am Anthropol 82:116–120Google Scholar
  35. Chagnon N (1979) Mate competition, favoring close kin, and village Fissioning among the Yanomano Indians. In: Chagnon N, Irons W (eds) Evolutionary biology and human social behavior: an anthropological perspective. Duxbury Press, North Scituate, MA, pp 86–131Google Scholar
  36. Churchill SE, Formicola V, Holliday TW, Holt BM, Schumann BA (2000) The upper Palaeolithic population of Europe in an evolutionary perspective. In: Roebroeks W, Mussi M, Svoboda J, Fennema K (eds) Hunters of the golden age: the mid upper Palaeolithic of Eurasia, 30, 000–20, 000 BP. University of Leiden, Leiden, pp 31–57Google Scholar
  37. Clift PD, Plumb RA (2008) The Asian monsoon: causes, history and effects. Cambridge University Press, UK, p 270Google Scholar
  38. Clottes J (1994) Dates directes pour les peintures paléolithiques. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 49:51–70Google Scholar
  39. Clottes J (1996) Thematic changes in upper palaeolithic art: a view from the Grotte Chauvet. Antiquity 70:276–288Google Scholar
  40. Clottes J, Lewis-Williams JD (1996a) The Shamans of prehistory: trance and magic in the painted caves. Harry N. Abrams, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Clottes J, Lewis-Williams JD (1996b) Upper palaeolithic cave art: French and South African collaboration. Cam Archaeol J 6:137–139Google Scholar
  42. Clutton-Brock TH, Harvey PH (1977) Sexual dimorphism, socioeconomic sex ratio, and body weight in primates. Nature 269:797–800Google Scholar
  43. Cohen AS, Stone JR, Beuning KRM, Park LE, Reinthal PN, Dettmar D et al (2007) Ecological consequences of early Late Pleistocene megadroughts in tropical Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:16422–16427Google Scholar
  44. COHMAP members (1988) Climatic changes of the last 18,000 years–observations and model simulations. Science 241:1043–1052Google Scholar
  45. David F, Enloe JG (1992) Chase saisonnière des Magdaléniens du bassin parisien. Bulletin et Mémoire de la Société d’Anthropologie de Paris 4:167–174Google Scholar
  46. de Waal FBM (1982) Chimpanzee politics: power and sex among apes, 2000th edn. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore; LondonGoogle Scholar
  47. de Waal FBM (2001) Apes from venus: bonobos and human social evolution. In: Waal FBMd (ed) Tree of origin: what primate behavior can tell us about human social evolution. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp 39–68Google Scholar
  48. Deacon HJ, Deacon J (1999) Human beginnings in South Africa: uncovering the secrets of the stone age. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, CAGoogle Scholar
  49. deMenocal P, Ortiz J, Guilderson T, Adkins J, Sarnthein M, Baker L et al (2000) Abrupt onset and termination of the African humid period: rapid climate responses to gradual insolation forcing. Quat Sci Rev 19:347–361Google Scholar
  50. Denton GH, Alley RB, Comer GC, Broecker WS (2005) The role of seasonality in abrupt climate change. Quat Sci Rev 24:1159–1182Google Scholar
  51. Derev’anko AP (1998) The paleolithic of Siberia: new discoveries and interpretations. University of Illinois Press, UrbanaGoogle Scholar
  52. Derev’anko AP (2005) The middle to upper Paleolithic transition in Eurasia, hypothesis and facts. Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography Press, NovosibirskGoogle Scholar
  53. Derev’anko AP, Shunkov MV (eds) (2008) The current issues of Paleolithic studies in Asia. Proceedings of the international symposium, Asian paleolithic association. Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography Press, NovosibirskGoogle Scholar
  54. Dolukhanov P, Sokoloff D, Shukurov A (2001) Radiocarbon chronology of upper palaeolithic sites in Eastern Europe at improved resolution. J Archaeol Sci 28:699–712Google Scholar
  55. Draper P (1973) Crowding among hunter-gatherers–Kung Bushmen. Science 182:301–303Google Scholar
  56. Dyke AS, Moore A, Roberson L (2003) Geological survey of Canada, open file 1574, 2 sheetsGoogle Scholar
  57. Enloe JG (2003) Food sharing past and present: archaeological evidence for economic and social interactions. Before Farm 1:1–23Google Scholar
  58. Enloe JG, David F (1992) Food sharing in the Paleolithic: carcass refitting at Pincevent. In: Hofman JL, Enloe JG (eds) Piecing together the past: applications of refitting studies in archaeology. BAR International Series 578, Oxford, pp 296–315Google Scholar
  59. Enloe JG, David F, Hare TS (1994) Patterns of faunal processing at Section 27 of Pincevent: the use of spatial analysis and ethnoarchaeological data in the interpretation of archaeological site structure. J Anthropol Archaeol 13:105–124Google Scholar
  60. EPICA Members (2004) Eight glacial cycles from an Antarctic ice core. Nature 429:623–628Google Scholar
  61. Erdal D, Whiten A (1994) On human egalitarianism: en evolutionary product of Machiavellian status escalation? Curr Anthropol 35:175–178Google Scholar
  62. Fleitmann D, Matter A (2009) The speleothem record of climate variability in southern Arabia. Comptes Rendus Geosciences 341(8–9):633–642Google Scholar
  63. Forster P (2004) Ice ages and the mitochondrial DNA chronology of human dispersals: a review. Phil Trans Royal Soc Lon Series B-Biol Sci 359:255–264Google Scholar
  64. Freedman DG (1980) Cross-cultural notes on status Hierarcheis. In: Omark DR, Strayer FF, Freedman DG (eds) Dominance relations: an ethological view of human conflict and social interaction. Garland STPM Press, New York, pp 335–339Google Scholar
  65. Gamble C (1986) The palaeolithic settlement of Europe. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  66. Gamble C (1991) Introduction. In: Gamble CS, Boismier WA (eds) Ethnoarchaeological approaches to mobile campsites. International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  67. Gamble C, Boismier WA (1991) Ethnoarchaeological approaches to mobile campsites: hunter-gatherer and pastoralist case studies. International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor, MichiganGoogle Scholar
  68. Gamble C, Porr M (2005) From empty spaces to lived lives: exploring the individual in the Palaeolithic. In: Gamble CS, Porr M (eds) The hominid individual in context. Routledge, London; New York, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  69. Gardner PM (1991) Foragers pursuit of individual autonomy. Curr Anthropol 32:543–572Google Scholar
  70. Gladkih MI, Kornietz NL, Soffer O (1984) Mammoth-bone dwellings on the Russian plain. Sci Am 251:164–175Google Scholar
  71. Gowaty PA, Anderson WW, Bluhm CK, Drickamer LC, Kim YK, Moore AJ (2007) The hypothesis of reproductive compensation and its assumptions about mate preferences and offspring viability. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:15023–15027Google Scholar
  72. Grammer K (1996) Symptoms of power: the function and evolution of social status. In: Wiessner PW, Schiefenheovel W (eds) Food and the status quest: an interdisciplinary perspective. Berghahn Books, Providence, pp 68–85Google Scholar
  73. Grigor’ev GP (1993) The Kostenki-Avdeedvo archaeological culture and the Willendorf-Pavlov-Kostenki-Avdeevo cultural unity. In: Soffer O, Praslov ND (eds) From Kostenki to Clovis: upper palaeolithic-paleo-Indian adaptations. Plenum Press, New York; London, pp 51–66Google Scholar
  74. Guiot J, Pons A, Debeaulieu JL, Reille M (1989) A 140, 000 year climate reconstruction from two European pollen records. Nature 338:309–313Google Scholar
  75. Guthrie D, Kolfschoten Tv (2000) Neither warm and moist, nor cold and arid: the ecology of the mid upper palaeolithic. In: Roebroeks W, Mussi M, Svoboda J, Fennema K (eds) Hunters of the golden age: the mid upper palaeolithic of Eurasia, 30,000–20, 000 BP. University of Leiden, Leiden, pp 13–20Google Scholar
  76. Haberle SG, Lusty AC (2000) Can climate influence cultural development? A view through time. Environ History 6:349–369Google Scholar
  77. Habu J (2004) Ancient Jomon of Japan. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  78. Hannagan RJ (2008) Gendered political behavior: a Darwinian feminist approach. Sex Roles J Res 59:465–475Google Scholar
  79. Hawks J, Wang ET, Cochran GM, Harpending HC, Moyzis RK (2007) Recent acceleration of human adaptive evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:20753–20758Google Scholar
  80. Hayden B (1990) Nimrods, piscators, pluckers, and planters: the emergence of food production. J Anthropol Archaeol 9:31–69Google Scholar
  81. Hayden B (1995) Pathways to power: principles for creating socioeconomic inequalities. In: Price TD, Feinman GM (eds) Foundations of social inequality. Plenum Press, New York, pp 15–86Google Scholar
  82. Hayden B, Gargett R (1990) Big man, big heart? Mesoam View Emerg Complex Soc Ancient Mesoam 1:3–20Google Scholar
  83. Hietala HJ (1984) Intrasite spatial analysis in archaeology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  84. Higham CFW (2002) Early cultures of mainland Southeast Asia. River Books, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  85. Hillman GC (1996) Late pleistocene changes in wild plant-foods available to hunter- gatherers of the northern Fertile Crescent: possible preludes to cereal cultivation. In: Harris DR (ed) The origins and spread of agriculture and pastoralism in Eurasia. UCL Press, London, pp 159–203Google Scholar
  86. Hiscock P (2008) Archaeology of ancient Australia. London, RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  87. Hodder I (1982) Symbols in action: ethnoarchaeological studies of material culture. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  88. Hoffecker JF (2002) Desolate landscapes: ice-age settlement of Eastern Europe. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJGoogle Scholar
  89. Hoffecker JF (2005) A prehistory of the north: human settlement of the higher latitudes. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJGoogle Scholar
  90. Hold-Cavell B (1996) The ethological basis of status hierarchies. In: Wiessner PW, Schiefenheovel W (eds) Food and the status quest: an interdisciplinary perspective. Berghahn Books, Providence, pp 19–31Google Scholar
  91. Hole F (2000) Is size important? Function and hierarchy in neolithic settlements. In: Kuijt I (ed) Life in neolithic farming communities: social organization, identity, and differentiation. Kluwer, New York, pp 191–209Google Scholar
  92. Howe J (1978) How the Cuna keep their chiefs in line. Man 13:537–553Google Scholar
  93. Hrdy SB (1981) The woman that never evolved. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  94. Hrdy SB (1999) Mother nature: maternal instincts and how they shape the human species (1st Ballantine Books ed.). Ballantine Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  95. Hrdy SB (2009) Mothers and others: the evolutionary origins of mutual understanding. Belknap Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  96. Irons W (1979) Natural selection, adaptation, and human social behavior. In: Chagnon N, Irons W (eds) Evolutionary biology and human social behavior: an anthropological perspective. Duxbury Press, North Scituate, MA, pp 86–131Google Scholar
  97. Jochim M (1987) Late pleistocene refugia in Europe. In: Soffer O (ed) The pleistocene old world: regional perspectives. Plenum, New York, pp 317–331Google Scholar
  98. Johanson DC, Edgar B, Brill D (2001) From Lucy to language. Cassell Paperbacks, LondonGoogle Scholar
  99. Kaplan H, Hill K (1985a) Food sharing among ache foragers: tests of explanatory hypotheses. Curr Anthropol. doi: 10.1086/203251 Google Scholar
  100. Kaplan H, Hill K (1985b) Hunting ability and reproductive success among male ache foragers: preliminary results. Curr Anthropol 26:131–133Google Scholar
  101. Keeley LH (1988) Hunter gatherer economic complexity and ‘population pressure’: a cross-cultural analysis. J Anthropol Archaeol 7:373–411Google Scholar
  102. Kelly RL (1995) The foraging spectrum: diversity in hunter-gatherer lifeways. Smithsonian Institution Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  103. Kent S (1987) Understanding the use of space: an ethnoarchaeological approach. In: Kent S (ed) Method and theory for activity area research. An ethnoarchaeological approach. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 1–60Google Scholar
  104. Kingdon J (2003) Lowly origin: where, when, and why our ancestors first stood up. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  105. Klein RG (1973) Ice-age hunters of the Ukraine. Chicago University Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  106. Klein RG (2000) Archeology and the evolution of human behavior. Evol Anthropol 9:17–36Google Scholar
  107. Knauft B (1991) Violence and sociality in human evolution. Curr Anthropol 32:391–428Google Scholar
  108. Kobayashi T, Kaner S, Nakamura O (2004) Jomon reflections: forager life and culture in the prehistoric Japanese archipelago. Oxbow, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  109. Kohfeld KE, Harrison SP (2001) DIRTMAP: the geological record of dust. Earth-Sci Rev 54:81–114Google Scholar
  110. Koyama S, Thomas DH (Eds.) (1981) Affluent Foragers: Pacific Coasts East and West Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  111. Krogman W (1997) The scars of human evolution. In: Ridley M (ed) Evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 348–353Google Scholar
  112. Kroll EM, Price TD (1991) The Interpretation of archaeological spatial patterning. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  113. Kutzbach JE, Harrison SP, Coe MT (2001) Land-ocean-atmosphere interactions and monsoon climate change: a paleo-perspective. In global biogeochemical cycles in the climate system: Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  114. Kuzmin YV (1997) Chronology of Palaeolithic Siberia and the Russian far east: recent results and current trends in radiometric dating. Tiie Rev Archaeol 18:33–38Google Scholar
  115. Laporte LF, Zihlman AL (1983) Plates, climate and hominoid evolution. S Afr J Sci 79:96–110Google Scholar
  116. Larimer CW, Hannagan RJ, Smith KB (2007) Balancing ambition and gender among decision makers. Ann Am Acad Political Social Sci 614:56–73Google Scholar
  117. Larsen CS (2003) Equality for the sexes in human evolution?–Early hominid sexual dimorphism and implications for mating systems and social behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:9103–9104Google Scholar
  118. Leacock E (1978) Women’s status in egalitarian society: implications for social evolution. Curr Anthropol 19:247–275Google Scholar
  119. Leacock EB, Lee RB (1982) Politics and history in band societies. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  120. Lee RB (1979) The !Kung San: men, women, and work in a foraging society. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  121. Lee RB (1982) Politics, sexual and non-sexual. In: Society Egalitarian, Leacock InE, Lee RB (eds) Politics and history in band societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 37–59Google Scholar
  122. Lee SH (2005) Patterns of size sexual dimorphism in Australopithecus afarensis: another look. Homo-J Compar Human Biol 56:219–232Google Scholar
  123. Leuschner DC, Sirocko F (2000) The low-latitude monsoon climate during Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles and Heinrich events. Quat Sci Rev 19:243–254Google Scholar
  124. Lewin R (2005) Human evolution. Wiley, Malden, MAGoogle Scholar
  125. Lewin R, Foley R (2004) Principles of human evolution. Wiley, MaldenGoogle Scholar
  126. Lewis-Williams JD (1991) Wrestling with analogy: a methodological dilemma in upper palaeolithic art research. Proc Prehistoric Society 57:149–162Google Scholar
  127. Lewis-Williams JD, Dowson TA (1988) The signs of all times: entoptic phenomena in upper palaeolithic art. Curr Anthropol 29:201–245Google Scholar
  128. Mahdi NQ (1986) Pukhtunwali: ostracism and honor among the Pathan hill tribes. Ethol Sociobiol 7:295–304Google Scholar
  129. Marlowe FW (2005) Hunter-gatherers and human evolution. Evol Anthropol 14:54–67Google Scholar
  130. Martrat B, Grimalt JO, Lopez-Martinez C, Cacho I, Sierro FJ, Flores JA, Zaghn R, Canals M, Curtis JH, David Hodell A (2004) Abrupt temperature changes in the Western mediterranean of the past 250,000 years. Science 306:1762–1765Google Scholar
  131. Martrat B, Grimalt JO, Shackleton NJ, de Abreu Lucia, Hutterli MA, Stocker TF (2007) Four climate cycles of recurring deep and surface water destabilizations on the Iberian margin. Science 317:502–507Google Scholar
  132. McHenry HM, Coffing K (2000) Australopithecus to homo: transformations in body and mind. Ann Rev Anthropol 29:125–146Google Scholar
  133. Mellars P (2006a) Going east: new genetic and archaeological perspectives on the modern human colonization of Eurasia. Science 313:796–800Google Scholar
  134. Mellars P (2006b) Why did modern human populations disperse from Africa ca. 60, 000 years ago? A new model. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:9381–9386Google Scholar
  135. Meltzer DJ (2009) First peoples in a new world: colonizing ice age America. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  136. Mitchell WE (1978) On keeping equal: polity and reciprocity among the New Guinea Wape. Anthropol Quart 51:5–15Google Scholar
  137. Mitchell WE (1988) The defeat of hierarchy: gambling as exchange in a Sepik society. Am Ethnol 15:638–657Google Scholar
  138. Morin E (2008) Evidence for declines in human population densities during the early Upper Paleolithic in western Europe. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:48–53Google Scholar
  139. Mulvaney J, Kamminga J (1999) Prehistory of Australia. Allen and Unwin, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  140. Murdock GP (1968) The current status of the world’s hunting and gathering people. In: Lee RB, DeVore I (eds) Man the hunter. Aldine, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  141. Nadel D (2002) The Ohalo II 1999–2000 seasons of excavations: a preliminary report. J Israel Prehistoric Society 32:17–48Google Scholar
  142. Nadel D, Werker E (1999) The oldest ever brush hut plant remains from Ohalo II, Jordan Valley, Israel (19, 000 BP). Antiquity 73:755–764Google Scholar
  143. NGRIP Members (2004) High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period. Nature 431:147–151Google Scholar
  144. O’Shea J (1984) Mortuary variability: an archaeological investigation. Academic Press, OrlandoGoogle Scholar
  145. O’Shea J, Zvelebil M (1984) Oleneostrovski mogilnik: reconstructing the social and economic organization of prehistoric foragers in northern Russia. J Anthropol Archaeol 3:1–40Google Scholar
  146. Oppo DW, Sun YB (2005) Amplitude and timing of sea-surface temperature change in the northern South China Sea: dynamic link to the East Asian monsoon. Geology 33:785–788Google Scholar
  147. Palmer CT, Fredrickson BE, Tilley CF (1997) Categories and gatherings: group selection and the mythology of cultural anthropology. Evol Human Behavior 18:291–308Google Scholar
  148. Parkington JE, Nilssen P, Reeler C, Henshilwood CS (1992) Making sense of space at Dunefield Midden campsite, western Cape, South Africa. South African Field Archaeol 1:63–70Google Scholar
  149. Pearson JL (2002) Shamanism and the ancient mind: a cognitive approach to archaeology. AltaMira Press, Walnut CreekGoogle Scholar
  150. Peebles CS, Kus SM (1977) Some archaeological correlates of ranked societies. Am Antiquity 42:421–448Google Scholar
  151. Peterson LC, Haug GH, Hughen KA, Rohl U (2000) Rapid changes in the hydrologic cycle of the tropical Atlantic during the last glacial. Science 290:1947–1951Google Scholar
  152. Pidoplichko IG (1969) Pozdnepaleoliticheskie zhilishcha iz kostei mamonta na Ukraine. Naukova Dumka, KievGoogle Scholar
  153. Pidoplichko IG (1976) Mezhirichskie zhilishcha iz kostei mamonta. Naukova Dumka, KievGoogle Scholar
  154. Plavcan JM, Lockwood CA, Kimbel WH, Lague MR, Harmon EH (2005) Sexual dimorphism in Australopithecus afarensis revisited: how strong is the case for a human-like pattern of dimorphism? J Hum Evol 48:313–320Google Scholar
  155. Potts R (1999) Environmental hypotheses of hominin evolution. Am J Phys Anthropol 107:93–136Google Scholar
  156. Power M (1991) The egalitarians–human and chimpanzee: an anthropological view of social organization. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  157. Price TD (1995) Social inequality at the origins of agriculture. In: Price TD, Feinman GM (eds) Foundations of social inequality. Plenum Press, New York, pp 129–151Google Scholar
  158. Price TD, Brown JA (1985) Prehistoric hunter-gatherers: the emergence of cultural complexity. Academic Press, OrlandoGoogle Scholar
  159. Price TD, Feinman GM (1995) Foundations of social inequality. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  160. Pusey A, Williams J, Goodall J (1997) The influence of dominance rank on the reproductive success of female chimpanzees. Science 277:828–831Google Scholar
  161. Renfrew C (1973) Monuments, mobilization and social organization in neolithic Wessex. In: Renfrew C (ed) The explanation of culture change: models in prehistory. Duckworth, London, pp 539–558Google Scholar
  162. Renfrew C (1984) Approaches to social archaeology. Edinburgh University Press, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  163. Reno PL, Meindl RS, McCollum MA, Lovejoy CO (2003) Sexual dimorphism in Australopithecus afarensis was similar to that of modern humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:9404–9409Google Scholar
  164. Reno PL, Meindl RS, McCollum MA, Lovejoy CO et al (2005) The case is unchanged, remains robust: Australopithecus afarensis exhibits only moderate skeletal dimorphism. A reply to Plavean. J Hum Evol 49:279–288Google Scholar
  165. Richerson PJ, Boyd R, Bettinger RL (2001) Was agriculture impossible during the pleistocene but mandatory during the holocene? A climate change hypothesis. American Antiquity, USA, p 66Google Scholar
  166. Richerson PJ, Boyd R, Bettinger RL (2009) Cultural innovations and demographic change. Hum Biol 81:211–235Google Scholar
  167. Roebroeks W (1988) From find scatters to early hominid behavior: a study of middle palaeolithic riverside settlements at Maastricht-Belvédère (The Netherlands). University of Leiden, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  168. Rowley-Conwy P (1983) Sedentary hunters: the Ertebølle example. In: Bailey G (ed) Hunter-gatherer economy in prehistory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 111–126Google Scholar
  169. Scarre C (2005) The human past: world prehistory & the development of human societies. Thames & Hudson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  170. Service ER (1979) The hunters, 2nd edn. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  171. Shackleton NJ, Opdyke ND (1973) Oxygen isotope and palaeomagnetic stratigraphy of equatorial Pacific core V28–238: oxygen isotope temperatures and ice volumes on a 105 scale and 106 year scale. Quat Res 3:39–55Google Scholar
  172. Shennan S (1975) The social organisation at Branč. Antiquity 49:279–288Google Scholar
  173. Shostak M (1981) Nisa: the life and words of a !Kung woman. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  174. Silberbauer G (1982) Political process in G/wi bands. In: Leacock E, Lee RB (eds) Politics and history in band societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 23–35Google Scholar
  175. Smith RJ (1996) Biology and body size in human evolution–statistical inference misapplied. Curr Anthropol 37:451–481Google Scholar
  176. Smith EA, Wishnie M (2000) Conservation and subsistence in small-scale societies. Ann Rev Anthropol 29:493–524Google Scholar
  177. Smuts B (1995) The evolutionary origins of patriarchy. Human Nature 6:1–32Google Scholar
  178. Soffer O (1985) The upper palaeolithic of the central Russian Plain. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  179. Soffer O (1989) Storage, sedentism and the Eurasian Palaeolithic record. Antiquity 63:719–732Google Scholar
  180. Soffer O (1993) Upper Palaeolithic adaptations in Central and Eastern Europe and man-mammoth interactions. In: Soffer O, Praslov ND (eds) From Kostenki to Clovis: upper palaeolithic-paleo-Indian adaptations. Plenum Press, New York, pp 31–50Google Scholar
  181. Soffer O (2000) Gravettian technologies in social context. In: Roebroeks W, Mussi M, Svoboda J, Fennema K (eds) Hunters of the golden age: the mid upper palaeolithic of Eurasia, 30, 000–20, 000 BP. University of Leiden, Leiden, pp 59–75Google Scholar
  182. Stanley SM (1992) An ecological theory for the origin of homo. Paleobiology 18:237–257Google Scholar
  183. Stevens T, Thomas DSG, Armitage SJ, Lunn HR, Lu HY (2007) Reinterpreting climate proxy records from late quaternary Chinese loess: a detailed OSL investigation. Earth-Sci Rev 80:111–136Google Scholar
  184. Stevens T, Lu HY, Thomas DSG, Armitage SJ (2008) Optical dating of abrupt shifts in the late Pleistocene East Asian monsoon. Geology 36:415–418Google Scholar
  185. Stewart BA (2008) Refitting repasts: a spatial exploration of food processing, sharing and disposal at the Dunefield Midden Campsite, South Africa. Unpublished D. Phil. University of Oxford, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  186. Susman RL (1987) Pygmy chimpanzees and common chimpanzees: models for the behavioral ecology of the earliest hominids. In: Kinzey WG (ed) The evolution of human behavior: primate models. State University Press of New York Press, Albany, pp 72–86Google Scholar
  187. Svoboda J, Klima B, Jarosova L, Skrdla P (2000) The Gravettian in Moravia: climate, behaviour and technological complexity. In: Roebroeks W, Mussi M, Svoboda J, Fennema K (eds) Hunters of the golden age: the mid upper palaeolithic of Eurasia, 30, 000–20, 000 BP. University of Leiden, Leiden, pp 197–217Google Scholar
  188. Tainter JA (1973) The social correlates of mortuary patterning at Kaloko, North Kona, Hawaii. Archaeol Physical Anthropol Oceania 8:1–11Google Scholar
  189. Tanaka J (1980) The San, hunter-gatherers of the kalahari: a study in ecological anthropology. University of Tokyo Press, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  190. Testart A (1988) Some major problems in the social-anthropology of hunter- gatherers. Curr Anthropol 29:1–31Google Scholar
  191. Thompson LG (2000) Ice core evidence for climate change in the tropics: implications for our future. Quat Sci Rev 19:19–35Google Scholar
  192. Tonner TWW (2005) Later stone age shellfishing behaviour at Duriefield Midden (Western Cape, South Africa). J Archaeol Sci 32:1390–1407Google Scholar
  193. Tooby J, Cosmides L (1992) The psychological foundations of culture. In: Barkow JH, Cosmides L, Tooby J (eds) The adapted mind: evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  194. Trauth MH, Maslin MA, Deino A, Strecker MR (2005) Late Cenozoic moisture history of East Africa. Science 309:2051–2053Google Scholar
  195. Turke PW, Betzig LL (1985) Those who can do: wealth, status, and reproductive success on Ifaluk. Ethol Sociobiol 6:79–87Google Scholar
  196. Turnbull CM (1968) Hunting and gathering: contemporary societies. Int Encyclop Soc Sci 7:21–26Google Scholar
  197. Van Noten F (1978) Les Chasseurs de Meer. De Tempel, BrugesGoogle Scholar
  198. Van Noten F, Keeley L, Cahen D (1980) A palaeolithic campsite in Belgium. Sci Am 242:48–55Google Scholar
  199. Vanhaeren M, d’Errico F (2005) Grave goods from the Saint-Germain-la-Rivère burial: evidence for social inequality in the upper palaeolithic. J Anthropol Archaeol 24:117–134Google Scholar
  200. Wang YJ, Cheng H, Edwards RL, He YQ, Kong XG, An ZS et al (2005) The holocene Asian monsoon: links to solar changes and North Atlantic climate. Science 308:854–857Google Scholar
  201. Wang YJ, Cheng H, Edwards RL, Kong XG, Shao XH, Chen ST et al (2008) Millennial- and orbital-scale changes in the East Asian monsoon over the past 224, 000 years. Nature 451:1090–1093Google Scholar
  202. Wason PK (1994) The archaeology of rank. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  203. Watson E, Forster P, Richards M, Bandelt HJ (1997) Mitochondrial footprints of human expansions in Africa. Am J Hum Genet 61:691–704Google Scholar
  204. Wells S (2002) The journey of man: a genetic Odyssey. Allen Lane, LondonGoogle Scholar
  205. White R (1999) Intégrer la complexite sociale et operationnelle: la construction matérielle de l’identité sociale à Sungir. In Préhistoire d’os. Recueil d’études sur l’industrie osseuse préhistorique oVert à Henriette Camps-Faber. Publications de l’Université de Provence, Aix-en- Provence, pp 319–331Google Scholar
  206. Whitelaw TM (1989) The social organization of space in hunter-gatherer communities, some implications for social inference in archaeology. Unpubl. Ph.D thesis: University of CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  207. Whitelaw TM (1991) Some dimensions of variability in the social organization of community space among foragers. In: Gamble CS, Boismier WA (eds) Ethnoarchaeological approaches to mobile campsites. International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor, pp 139–188Google Scholar
  208. Wiessner P (1996a) Introduction: food, status, culture, and nature. In: Wiessner PW, Schiefenheovel W (eds) Food and the status quest: an interdisciplinary perspective. Berghahn Books, Providence, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  209. Wiessner P (1996b) Leveling the hunter: constraints on the status quest in foraging societies. In: Wiessner PW (ed) Food and the status quest: an interdisciplinary perspective. Berghahn Books, Providence, pp 171–191Google Scholar
  210. Winckler G, Anderson RF, Fleisher MQ, McGee D, Mahowald N (2008) Covariant glacial-interglacial dust fluxes in the equatorial Pacific and Antarctica. Science 320:93–96Google Scholar
  211. Woodburn J (1982) Egalitarian societies. Man 17:431–451Google Scholar
  212. Yellen JE (1976) Settlement patterns of the !Kung: an archeological perspective. In: Lee RB, DeVore I (eds) Kalahari hunter-gatherers. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, pp 47–72Google Scholar
  213. Yellen JE (1977) Archaeological approaches to the present: models for reconstructing the past. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  214. Zahavi A, Zahavi A, Zahavi-Ely N, Ely MP (1997) The handicap principle: a missing piece of Darwin’s puzzle. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  215. Zalasiewicz J, Williams M, Smith A, Barry TL, Coe AL, Brown PR et al (2008) Are we now living in the anthropocene? GSA Today 18:4–8Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Doron Shultziner
    • 1
  • Thomas Stevens
    • 2
    • 3
  • Martin Stevens
    • 4
  • Brian A. Stewart
    • 5
  • Rebecca J. Hannagan
    • 6
    Email author
  • Giulia Saltini-Semerari
    • 7
  1. 1.Political Science Department, Gilo Center for Citizenship, Democracy and Civic EducationHebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael
  2. 2.Department of GeographyRoyal Holloway, University of LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Nordic Laboratory for Luminescence Dating, Department of Earth SciencesAarhus UniversityÅrhusDenmark
  4. 4.Department of ZoologyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  5. 5.McDonald Institute for Archaeological ResearchUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  6. 6.Department of Political ScienceNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalbUSA
  7. 7.Institute of ArchaeologyUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations