In order to set up large-scale acclimatization protocols of micropropagated plants, an in-depth knowledge of their physiological responses during in vitro to ex vitro transfer is required. This work describes the photosynthetic performance of Ulmus minor micropropagated plants during acclimatization at high irradiance (HI; 200 ± 20 μmol m−2 s−1 or low irradiance (LI; 100 ± 20 μmol m−2 s−1). During this experiment, leaf pigment content, chlorophyll a fluorescence, gas exchange, stomata morphology, the activity of the Calvin cycle enzymes and saccharides were measured in persistent and new leaves. The results indicated that HI induces a higher photosynthetic performance compared to LI. Therefore, plants acclimatized under HI are likely to survive better after field transfer.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
- ci/ca :
ratio of intercellular to atmospheric CO2 concentration
- Fv/Fm :
variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (maximal efficiency of PSII)
- gs :
- PN :
net photosynthetic rate
- ΦPSII :
effective quantum efficiency of PSII
Amâncio, S., Rebordão, J.P., Chaves, M.M.: Improvement of acclimatization of micropropagated grapevine: photosynthetic competence and carbon allocation. — Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 58: 31–37, 1999.
Brito, G., Costa, A., Coelho, C., Santos, C.: Large-scale field acclimatization of Olea maderensis micropropagated plants: morphological and physiological survey. — Trees 23: 1019–1031, 2009.
Brüggemann, W., Klaucke, S., Maas-Kantel, K.: Long-term chilling of young tomato plants under low light. V. Kinetic and molecular properties of two key enzymes of the Calvin cycle in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and L. peruvianum Mill. — Planta 194: 160–168, 1994.
Carvalho, L.C., Esquível, M.G., Martins, I., Pinto Ricardo, C., Amâncio, S.: Monitoring the stability of Rubisco in micropropagated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) by twodimensional electrophoresis. — J. Plant Physiol. 162: 365–374, 2005.
Carvalho, L.C., Osório, M.L., Chaves, M.M., Amâncio, S.: Chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of photosynthetic functioning of in vitro grapevine and chestnut plants under ex vitro acclimatization. — Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 67: 271–280, 2001.
Choudhury, N.K., Behera, R.K.: Photoinhibition of photosynthesis: role of carotenoids in photoprotection of chloroplasts. — Photosynthetica 39: 481–488, 2001.
Conde, P., Loureiro, J., Santos, C.: Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from leaves of Ulmus minor Mill. — Plant Cell Rep. 22: 632–639, 2004.
Conde, P., Sousa, A., Costa, A., Santos, C.: A protocol for Ulmus minor Mill. micropropagation and acclimatization. — Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 92: 113–119, 2008.
Correia, M.J., Fonseca, F., Azedo-Silva, J., Dias, C., David, M.M., Barrote, I., Osório, M.L., Osório, J.: Effects of water deficit on the activity of nitrate reductase and contents of sugars, nitrate and free amino acids in the leaves and roots of sunflower and with lupin plants growing under two nutrient supply regimes. — Physiol. Plant. 124: 61–70, 2005.
Dias, M.C., Brüggemann, W.: Photosynthesis under drought stress in Flaveria species with different degrees of development of the C4 syndrome. — Photosynthetica 45: 75–84, 2007.
Dias, M.C., Brüggemann, W.: Limitations of photosynthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris under drought stress: gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and Calvin cycle enzymes. — Photosynthetica 48: 96–102, 2010.
Dias M.C., Pinto G., Santos C.: Acclimatization of micropropagated plantlets induces an antioxidative burst: a case study with Ulmus minor Mill. — Photosynthetica 49: 259–266, 2011.
Dunn, C.P.: The Elms — Breeding, Conservation and Disease Management. — Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 2000.
Estrada-Luna, A.A., Davies, F.T., Egilla, J.N.: Physiological changes and growth of micropropagated Chile ancho pepper plantlets during acclimatization and post-acclimatization. — Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 66: 17–24, 2001.
Faisal, M., Anis, M.: Changes in photosynthetic activity, pigment composition, electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes during ex vitro establishment of micropropagated Rauvolfia tetraphylla plantlets. — Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 99: 125–132, 2009.
Fila, G., Badeck, F.W., Meyer, S., Cerovic, Z., Ghashghai, J.: Relationships between leaf conductance to CO2 diffusion and photosynthesis in micropropagated grapevine plants, before and after ex vitro acclimatization. — J. exp. Bot. 57: 2687–2695, 2006.
Fuentes, G., Talavera, C., Opereza, C., Desjardins, Y., Santamaria, J.: Exogenous sucrose can decrease in vitro photosynthesis but improve field survival and growth of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in vitro plantlets. — In vitro cell. dev. Biol. Plant. 41: 69–76, 2005.
Grout, B.W.: Photosynthesis of regenerated plantlets in vitro and the stresses of transplanting. — Acta Hort. 230: 129–135, 1988.
Harvengt, L., Meier-Dinkel, A., Dumas, E., Collin, E.: Establishment of a cryopreserved gene bank of European elms. — Can. J. Forest. Res. 34: 43–55, 2004.
Hazarika, B.N.: Morpho-physiological disorders in in vitro culture of plants. — Sci. Hort. 108: 105–120, 2006.
Hdider, C.Y., Desjardins, L.: Reduction of ribulose 1-5 bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase efficiency by the presence of sucrose during the tissue culture of strawberry plantlets. — In Vitro cell. dev. Biol. Plant 31: 165–170, 1995.
Jones, M.G.K., Outlaw, W.H., Lowry, O.H.: Enzymatic assay of 10-7 to 10-14 moles of sucrose in plant tissue. — Plant Physiol. 60: 379–383, 1977.
Lilley, R.M., Walker, D.A.: An improved spectrophotometric assay for ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase. — Biochem. biophys. Acta 358: 226–229, 1974.
Merkel, S.A., Nairn, C.J.: Hardwood tree biotechnology. — In Vitro cell. dev. Biol. 41: 602–619, 2005.
Osório, M.L., Gonçalves, S., Osório, J., Romano, A.: Effects of CO2 concentration on acclimatization and physiological responses of two cultivars of carob tree. — Biol. Plant. 49: 161–167, 2005.
Osório, M.L., Osório, J., Romano, A.: Chlorophyll fluorescence in micropropagated Rhododendron ponticum subsp. baeticum plants in response to different irradiances. — Biol. Plant. 54: 415–422, 2010.
Park, Y-S.: Implementation of conifer somatic embryogenesis in clonal forestry: technical requirements and deployment considerations. — Ann. Forest. Sci. 59: 651–656, 2002.
Pinto, G., Park, Y-S., Silva, S., Araújo, C., Neves, L., Santos, C.: Factors affecting maintenance, proliferation, and germination of secondary somatic embryos of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.. — Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 95: 69–78, 2008.
Pinto, G., Silva, S., Loureiro, J., Costa, A., Dias, M.C., Araújo, C., Neves, L., Santos, C.: Acclimatization of secondary somatic embryos derived plants of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.: an ultrastructural approach. — Trees 25: 383–392, 2011.
Pospíšilová, J., Synková, H., Haisel, D., Baťková, P.: Effect of abscisic acid on photosynthetic parameters during ex vitro transfer of micropropagated tobacco plantlets. — Biol. Plant. 53: 11–20, 2009.
Pospíšilová, J., Synková, H., Haisel, D., Čatský, J., Wilhelmová, N., Šrámek, F.: Effect of elevated CO2 concentrations on acclimation of tobacco plantlets to ex vitro conditions. — J. exp. Bot. 50: 119–126, 1999.
Rybczyński, J.J., Borkowska, B., Fiuk, A., Gawńroska, H., Śliwińska, E., MikuŁa, A.: Effect of sucrose concentration on photosynthetic activity of in vitro cultures Gentiana kurroo (Royle) germlings. — Acta Physiol. Plant. 29: 445–453, 2007.
Schreiber, U., Bilger, W., Neubauer: Chlorophyll flourescence as a non-destructive indicator for rapid assessment of in vivo photosynthesis. — In: Schulze, E.D., Caldwell, M.M. (ed.): Ecophysiology of Photosynthesis. Pp. 49–70, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1995.
Sims, D.A., Gamon, J.A.: Relationships between leaf pigment content and spectral reflectance across a wide range of species, leaf structures and developmental stages. — Remote Sensing Environ. 81: 337–354, 2002.
Stitt, M., Bulpin, P.V., Rees, T.A.: Pathway of starch breakdown in photosynthetic tissues of Pisum sativum. — Biochem. Acta 544: 200–214, 1978.
Van Huylenbroeck, J.M., Piqueras, A., Debergh, P.C.: The evolution of photosynthesis capacity and the antioxidant enzymatic system during acclimatization of micropropagated Calathea plants. — Plant Sci. 155: 59–66, 2000.
Van Kooten, O., Snel, J.F.H.: The use of chlorophyll fluorescence nomenclature in plant stress physiology. — Photosynth. Res. 25: 47–150, 1990.
Von Caemmerer, S., Farquhar, G.D.: Some relationships between the biochemistry of photosynthesis and the gas exchange of leaves. — Planta 153: 376–387, 1981.
Walters, R.G., Horton, P.: Resolution of components of nonphotochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching in barley leaves. — Photosynth. Res. 27:121–133, 1991.
Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology through a post-doctoral fellowship of M.C. Dias (SFRH/BPD/41700/2007) and S. Silva (SFRH/BPD/74299/2010). The authors acknowledge Dr. K. Bennett for her assistance in proofreading the manuscript.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Dias, M.C., Pinto, G., Correia, C.M. et al. Photosynthetic parameters of Ulmus minor plantlets affected by irradiance during acclimatization. Biol Plant 57, 33–40 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10535-012-0234-8
Additional key words
- Calvin cycle enzymes
- net photosynthetic rate
- transpiration rate