Leaves of the scab-susceptible apple (Malus domestica) cultivar Golden Delicious were harvested from May to August 2008 and 2009. Some leaves were healthy and some infected with fungus Venturia inaequalis. The phenolic compounds were analysed in healthy leaves, infected leaves and in the scab spot tissue. In comparison to healthy leaves, the infected leaves showed higher contents of hydroxycinnamic acid, flavanols and phloridzin, while lower contents on procyanidins, quercetins and phloretin. The total amount of phenolic compounds in the infected tissue was 10 to 20 % higher than in the healthy leaves. Accumulation of phenolic compounds is a post-infection response, and probably their further transformation is a prerequisite for plant resistance.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
gallic acid equivalent
high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry
phenylalanine ammonia lyase
Anand, T., Bhaskaran, R., Raguchander, T., Samiyappan, R., Prakasam, V., Gopalakrishnan, C.: Defence responses of chilli fruits to Colletotrichum capsici and Alternaria alternata. — Biol. Plant. 53: 553–559, 2009.
Benaouf, G., Parisi, L.: Characterization of Venturia inaequalis pathogenicity on leaf disc of apple trees. — Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 104: 785–793, 1998.
Feucht, W., Treutter, D., Christ, E.: The precise localization of catechins and proantocyanidins in protective layers around fungal-infections. — Z. Pflanzenkr. Pflanzenpathol. Pflanzenschutz 99: 404–413, 1992.
Feucht, W.: The localization of phenols at the cellular and tissue level. — Acta hort. 381: 803–815, 1994.
Gosch, C., Halbwirth, H., Kuhn, J., Miosic, S., Stich, K.: Biosynthesis of phloridzin in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). — Plant Sci. 176: 223–231, 2009.
Hamauzu, Y.: Role and evolution of fruit phenolic compounds during ripening. — Stewart Postharvest Rev. 2: 1–7, 2006.
Lattanzio, V., Di Venere, D., Linsalata, V., Bertolini, P., Ippolito, A., Salerno, M.: Low-temperature metabolism of apple phenolics and quiescence of Phlyctaena vagabunda. — J. Agr. Food Chem. 49: 5817–5821, 2001.
Leser, C., Treutter, D.: Effect of nitrogen supply on growth content of phenolic compounds and pathogen (scab) resistance of apple trees. — Physiol. Plant. 123: 49–56, 2005.
Marks, S.C., Mullen, W., Crozier, A.: Flavonoid and chlorogenic acid profiles of English cider apples. — J. Sci. Food Agr. 87: 719–728, 2007.
Mayr, U., Michalek, S., Treutter, D., Feucht, W.: Phenolic compounds of apple and their relationship to scab resistance. — J. Phytopathol. 145: 69–75, 1997.
Michalek, S., Mayr, U., Treutter, D., Lux-Endrich, A., Gutmann, M., Feucht, W., Geibel, M.: Role of flavan-3-ols in resistance of apple trees to Venturia inaequalis. — Acta hort. 484: 535–539, 1999.
Mikulic Petkovsek, M., Stampar, F., Veberic, R.: Parameters of inner quality of the scab resistant and susceptible apple in organic and integrated production. — Sci. Hort. 114: 37–44, 2007.
Mikulic Petkovsek, M., Stampar, F., Veberic, R.: Increased phenolic content in apple leaves infected with the apple scab pathogen. — J. Plant Pathol. 90: 49–55, 2008.
Mikulic Petkovsek, M., Stampar, F., Veberic, R.: Accumulation of phenolic compounds in apple in response to infection by the scab pathogen, Venturia inaequalis. — Physiol. mol. Plant Pathol. 74: 60–67, 2009.
Parisi, L., Lespinasse, Y., Guillaumes, J., Krüger, J.: A new race of Venturia inaequalis virulent to apples with resistance due to the Vf gene. — Phytopathology 93: 533–537, 1993.
Picinelli, A., Dapena, E., Mangas, J.J.: Polyphenolic pattern in apple tree leaves in relation to scab resistance. A preliminary study. — J. Agr. Food Chem. 43: 2273–2278, 1995.
Rat-Morris, E., Amiot, M.J., Tacchini, M., Lespinasse, Y.: Phenolic composition of apple leaves, prior to infestation, associated with the resistance of the apple cv. Florina- Querina to the apple scab Venturia inaequalis and to the rosy apple aphid Pysaphis plantaginea. — In: Vercauteren, J., Cheze, C., Dumon, M., Weber, J. (ed.): Polyphenols Communications 96. 18th International Conference on Polyphenols. Pp. 355–356. Secretariat du Groupe Polyphenols, Bordeaux 1996.
Roemmelt, S., Fischer, T.C., Halbwirth, H., Peterek, S., Schlangen, K., Speakman, J.B., Treutter, D., Forkmann, G., Stich, K.: Effect of dioxygenase inhibitors on the resistancerelated flavonoid metabolism of apple and pears: chemical, biochemical and molecular biological aspects. — Europ. J. Hort. Sci. 68: 129–136, 2003.
Schwalb, P., Feucht, W.: Changes in the concentration of phenolic substances in the bark during the annual development of the cherry tree (Prunus avium L.). — Adv. Hort. Sci. 13: 71–75, 1999.
Sierotzki, H., Gessler, C.: Flavan-3-ols content and the resistance of Malus × domestica to Venturia inaequalis (Cooke.) Wind. — Physiol. mol. Plant Pathol. 42: 291–297, 1993.
Singleton, V.L., Rossi, J.A.: Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phospholungistic acid reagents. — Amer. J. Enol. Viticult. 16: 144–158, 1965.
Treutter, D.: Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and their regulation in apple. — Plant Growth Regul. 34: 71–89, 2001.
Treutter, D., Feucht, W.: The pattern of flavan-3-ols in relation to scab resistance of apple cultivars. — J. hort. Sci. 65: 511–517, 1990a.
Treutter, D., Feucht, W.: Accumulation of flavan-3-ols in fungus-infected leaves of Rosaceae. — Z. Pflanzenkr. Pflanzenpathol. Pflanzenschutz 97: 634–641, 1990b.
Usenik, V., Mikulic Petkovsek, M., Solar, A., Stampar, F.: Flavonols of leaves in relation to apple scab resistance. — Z. Pflanzenkr. Pflanzenpathol. Pflanzenschutz 111: 137–144, 2004.
Veberic, R., Zadravec, P., Stampar, F.: Fruit quality of ‘Fuji’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) strains. — J. Sci. Food Agr. 87: 593–599, 2007.
This work is part of the programme Horticulture No P4-0013-0481 and the project No J4-0890 funded by the Slovenian Research Agency.
About this article
Cite this article
Mikulic Petkovsek, M., Slatnar, A., Stampar, F. et al. Phenolic compounds in apple leaves after infection with apple scab. Biol Plant 55, 725 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10535-011-0176-6
Additional key words
- Venturia inaequalis
- Malus domestica
- hydroxycinnamic acids