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Target sites of aluminum phytotoxicity

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  • Published:
Biologia Plantarum

Abstract

The primary phytotoxic effect of aluminum (Al) is confined to the root apex. It is a matter of debate whether the primary injury of Al toxicity is apoplastic or symplastic. This review paper summarizes our current understanding of the spatial and metabolic sites of Al phytotoxicity. At tissue level, the meristematic, distal transition, and apical elongation zones of the root apex are most sensitive to Al. At cellular and molecular level, many cell components are implicated in Al toxicity including DNA in nucleus, numerous cytoplastic compounds, the plasma membrane, and the cell wall. Although it is difficult to distinguish the primary targets from the secondary effects so far, understanding of the target sites of Al toxicity is helpful for elucidating the mechanisms by which Al exerts its deleterious effects on root growth.

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Abbreviations

CaM:

calmodulin

CEC:

cation exchange capacity

cMTs:

cortical microtubules

DTZ:

distal transition zone

EZ:

elongation zone

PIP2 :

phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate

PM:

plasma membrane

ROS:

reactive oxygen species

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Correspondence to S. J. Zheng.

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This work was partly supported by fund from the Huoyingdong Foundation, Education Ministry of China and Natural Science Foundation of China (Contact No. 30170548).

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Zheng, S.J., Yang, J.L. Target sites of aluminum phytotoxicity. Biol Plant 49, 321–331 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10535-005-0001-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10535-005-0001-1

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