Skip to main content

Age-related changes in cationic compositions of human cranial base bone apatite measured by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) coupled with scanning electron microscope (SEM)

Abstract

One of the most common scientific methods to study the chemical composition of bone matter is energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). However, interpretation of the data obtained can be quite complicated and require a thorough understanding of bone structure. This is especially important when evaluating subtle changes of chemical composition, including the age-related ones. The aim of current study is to create a method of processing the obtained data that can be utilized in clinical medicine and use it to evaluate the age evolution of bone chemical composition. To achieve this goal, an elemental composition of 62 samples of cadaver compact bone, taken from the skull base (age: Me = 57.5; 21/91(min/max); Q1 = 39.5, Q3 = 73.75), was studied with EDS. We used the original method to estimate the amount of Mg2+ cations. We detected and confirmed an increase of Mg2+ cation formula amount in the bone apatite, which characterizes age-related resorption rate. Analysis of cation estimated ratio in a normative bone hydroxylapatite showed an increase of Mg2+ amount (R = 0.43, p = 0.0005). Also, Ca weight fraction was shown to decrease with age (R = − 0.43, p = 0.0005), which in turn confirmed the age-dependent bone decalcification. In addition, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) were performed. EDS data confirmed the EPMA results (R = 0.76, p = 0.001). In conclusion, the proposed method can be used in forensic medicine and provide additional data to the known trends of decalcification and change of density and crystallinity of mineral bone matter.

Graphical abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

Download references

Funding

All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. V. Kravchik.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kravchik, M.V., Zolotenkova, G.V., Grusha, Y.O. et al. Age-related changes in cationic compositions of human cranial base bone apatite measured by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) coupled with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Biometals (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10534-022-00425-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10534-022-00425-1

Keywords

  • EDS
  • EPMA
  • XRD
  • Bone mineral
  • Magnesium