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High affinity iron uptake by pyoverdine in Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves multiple regulators besides Fur, PvdS, and FpvI

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium which can cause serious infections among immune-depressed people including cystic fibrosis patients where it can colonize the lungs causing chronic infections. Iron is essential for P. aeruginosa and can be provided via three sources under aerobic conditions: its own siderophores pyochelin (PCH) and pyoverdine (PVD), xenosiderophores, or heme, respectively. Pyoverdine is the high affinity siderophore and its synthesis and uptake involve more than 30 genes organized in different operons. Its synthesis and uptake are triggered by iron scarcity via the Fur regulator and involves two extra cytoplasmic sigma factors (ECF), PvdS for the biosynthesis of PVD and FpvI for the uptake via the TonB-dependent FpvA outer membrane transporter and other periplasmic and inner membrane proteins. It appeared recently that the regulation of PVD biosynthesis and uptake involves other regulators, including other ECF factors, and LysR regulators. This is the case especially for the genes coding for periplasmic and inner membrane proteins involved in the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ and the transport of ferrous iron to the cytoplasm that appears to represent a crucial step in the uptake process.

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Correspondence to Pierre Cornelis.

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Cornelis, P., Tahrioui, A., Lesouhaitier, O. et al. High affinity iron uptake by pyoverdine in Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves multiple regulators besides Fur, PvdS, and FpvI. Biometals 36, 255–261 (2023).

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