, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 313–319 | Cite as

Quality control of commercial bovine lactoferrin

  • Hiroyuki Wakabayashi
  • Koji Yamauchi
  • Fumiaki Abe


Herein we review commercial bovine lactoferrin quality issues by describing an example of industrial production, the current status of global quality standardization, and quality-activity concerns for further discussion. Morinaga Milk Industry has been industrially producing bovine lactoferrin in Milei GmbH, Germany, since 1989. We delineate its production and quality as an example of safe and high-quality manufacturing. Currently, global standardization in the quality of bovine lactoferrin is progressing through Novel Food and GRAS in the EU and USA, respectively. Novel Food was applied or notified to seven lactoferrin manufacturers and GRAS was notified to three manufacturers, two of which are for infant use and one is for adult use, by the end of 2017. The specifications of these regulations are relatively high, including more than 95% lactoferrin purity in protein, which means that such companies can supply relatively high-grade lactoferrin. There appear to be several concerns regarding lactoferrin quality affecting activities, including contamination of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and angiogenin, purity, and degradation of lactoferrin sample. Although LPS is immunologically toxic when invading the body, it is distributed normally in foods and the gut. However, an industrial lactoferrin sample may contain LPS at a maximum LPS/lactoferrin molecule ratio = 1/1724, which means 99.9% of the lactoferrin molecule is LPS-free. It is difficult to speculate that LPS contained in a lactoferrin sample affects its activities. Finally in order to achieve good and reproducible results, we make proposals to researchers a use of high-grade lactoferrin, careful storage, and indication the manufacturers’ names and specifications in the paper.


Lactoferrin Quality Specification Novel Food GRAS LPS 



Funding was provided by Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroyuki Wakabayashi
    • 1
  • Koji Yamauchi
    • 1
  • Fumiaki Abe
    • 1
  1. 1.Food Ingredients & Technology InstituteMorinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd.ZamaJapan

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