Advertisement

Biogeochemistry

, Volume 138, Issue 1, pp 23–48 | Cite as

Hydrologic and biogeochemical drivers of dissolved organic carbon and nitrate uptake in a headwater stream network

  • Erin SeyboldEmail author
  • Brian McGlynn
Article

Abstract

Headwater streams are foci for nutrient and energy loading from terrestrial landscapes, in situ nutrient transformations, and downstream transport. Despite the prominent role that headwater streams can have in regulating downstream water quality, the relative importance of processes that can influence nutrient uptake have not been fully compared in heterotrophic aquatic systems. To address this research need, we assessed the seasonality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrate (NO3) uptake, compared the relative influence of hydrologic and biogeochemical drivers on observed seasonal trends in nutrient uptake, and estimated the influence of these biological transformations on watershed scale nutrient retention and export. We determined that seasonal reductions in DOC and NO3 concentrations led to decreases in the potential for the biotic community to take up nutrients, and that seasonality of DOC and NO3 uptake was consistent with the seasonal dynamics of ecosystem metabolism. We calculated that that during the post-snowmelt period (June to August), biotic retention of both dissolved organic carbon and nitrate exceeded export fluxes from this headwater catchment, highlighting the potential for biological processes to regulate downstream water quality.

Keywords

Dissolved organic Carbon Nitrogen Nutrient uptake TASCC Residence time Watershed export 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support for this project was provided by Duke University, the National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Research Fellowship Program, NSF Grant #1114392, and USDA Award #2012-67019-19360. We would like to thank Maggie Zimmer, Kendra Kaiser, Andrew Burch, and Patrick Clay for assistance with fieldwork. We thank the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest for allowing us access to the site and providing logistical support.

References

  1. Ågren AM, Buffam I, Cooper DM et al (2014) Can the heterogeneity in stream dissolved organic carbon be explained by contributing landscape elements? Biogeosciences 11:1199–1213.  https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-1199-2014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilera R, Marcé R, Sabater S (2013) Modeling nutrient retention at the watershed scale: does small stream research apply to the whole river network? J Geophys Res Biogeosci 118(2):728–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander RB, Smith RA, Schwarz GE (2000) Effect of stream channel size on the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico. Nature 403:758–762.  https://doi.org/10.1038/35001562 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basu NB, Destouni G, Jawitz JW et al (2010) Nutrient loads exported from managed catchments reveal emergent biogeochemical stationarity. Geophys Res Lett 37:1–5.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL045168 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Battin TJ, Kaplan LA, Findlay S et al (2008) Biophysical controls on organic carbon fluxes in fluvial networks. Nat Geosci 2:595.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo602 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bennett JP, Rathburn RE (1972) Reaeration in open-channel flow. Geological Survey Professional Paper 737, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  7. Berggren M, Giorgio PA (2015) Distinct patterns of microbial metabolism associated with riverine dissolved organic carbon of different source and quality. J Geophys Res Biogeosci.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JG002963 Google Scholar
  8. Berggren M, Laudon H, Jansson M (2009) Hydrological control of organic carbon support for bacterial growth in boreal headwater streams. Microb Ecol 57:170–178.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-008-9423-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berggren M, Laudon H, Haei M, Stro L (2010) Efficient aquatic bacterial metabolism of dissolved low-molecular-weight compounds from terrestrial sources. ISME J.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2009.120 Google Scholar
  10. Bergstrom A, McGlynn B, Mallard J, Covino T (2016) Watershed structural influences on the distributions of stream network water and solute travel times under baseflow conditions. Hydrol Process 30:2671–2685.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.10792 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bernal S, Von Schiller D, Martí E, Sabater F (2012) In-stream net uptake regulates inorganic nitrogen export from catchments under base flow conditions. J Geophys Res Biogeosci 117:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JG001985 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bernal S, Lupon A, Ribot M et al (2015) Riparian and in-stream controls on nutrient concentrations and fluxes in a headwater forested stream. Biogeosciences 12:1941–1954.  https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-1941-2015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bernhardt ES, Likens GE (2002) Dissolved organic carbon enrichment alters stream nitrogen dynamics in a forest stream. Ecology 83:1689–1700.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2002)083[1689:DOCEAN]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bernhardt ES, Hall RO Jr, Likens GE (2002) Whole-system estimates of nitrification and nitrate uptake in streams of the hubbard brook experimental forest. Ecosystems 5:419–430.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-002-0179-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bernhardt ES, Likens GE, Hall RO et al (2005) Can’t see the forest for the stream? In-stream processing and terrestrial nitrogen exports. Bioscience 55:219–230.  https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0219:ACSTFF]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brookshire ENJ, Valett HM, Thomas SA et al (2005) Coupled cycling of dissolved organic nitrogen and carbon in a forest stream. Ecology 86:2487–2496.  https://doi.org/10.1890/04-1184 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brookshire ENJ, Valett HM, Gerber S (2009) Maintenance of terrestrial nutrient loss signatures during in-stream transport. Ecology 90:293–299.  https://doi.org/10.1890/08-0949.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohen MAJ, Kurz MJ, Heffernan JB et al (2013) Diel phosphorus variation and the stoichiometry of ecosystem metabolism in a large spring-fed river. Ecol Monogr 83:155–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cole JJ, Prairie YT, Caraco NF et al (2007) Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget. Ecosystems 10:172–185.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-006-9013-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cory RM, Kaplan LA (2012) Biological lability of streamwater fluorescent dissolved organic matter. Limnol Oceanogr 57:1347–1360.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2012.57.5.1347 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cory RM, Ward CP, Crump BC, Kling GW (2014) Sunlight controls water column processing of carbon in arctic fresh waters. Science 345(80):925–928.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1253119 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cory RM, Harrold KH, Neilson BT, Kling GW (2015) Controls on dissolved organic matter (DOM) degradation in a headwater stream: the influence of photochemical and hydrological conditions in determining light-limitation or substrate-limitation of photo-degradation. Biogeosci Discuss 12:9793–9838.  https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-12-9793-2015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Covino T, McGlynn BL (2007) Stream gains and losses across a mountain-to-valley transition: Impacts on watershed hydrology and stream water chemistry. Water Resour Res 43:1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006WR005544 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Covino T, McGlynn BL, Baker M (2010a) Separating physical and biological nutrient retention and quantifying uptake kinetics from ambient to saturation in successive mountain stream reaches. J Geophys Res Biogeosci 115:1–17.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JG001263 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Covino T, McGlynn BL, McNamara RA (2010b) Tracer additions for spiraling curve characterization (TASCC): quantifying stream nutrient uptake kinetics from ambient to saturation. Limnol Oceanogr Methods 8:484–498.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2010.8.484 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Covino T, McGlynn BL, Mallard J (2011) Stream-groundwater exchange and hydrologic turnover at the network scale. Water Resour Res 47:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011WR010942 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Covino T, McGlynn BL, McNamara R (2012) Land use/land cover and scale influences on in-stream nitrogen uptake kinetics. J Geophys Res 117:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JG001874 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Crawford JT, Lottig NR, Stanley EH et al (2014) CO2 and CH4 emissions from streams in a lake-rich landscape: patterns, controls, and regional significance. Global Biogeochem Cycles.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GB004661 Google Scholar
  29. Creed IF, McKnight DM, Pellerin BA et al (2015) The river as a chemostat: fresh perspectives on dissolved organic matter flowing down the river continuum. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 72:1–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. del Giorgio PA, Cole JJ (1998) Bacterial growth efficiency in natural aquatic systems. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 29:503–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Demars BOL, Thompson J, Manson JR (2015) Stream metabolism and the open diel oxygen method: Principles, practice, and perspectives. Limnol Oceanogr Methods 13:356–374.  https://doi.org/10.1002/lom3.10030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Duarte CM, Prairie YT (2005) Prevalence of heterotrophy and atmospheric CO2 emissions from aquatic ecosystems. Ecosystems 8:862–870.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-005-0177-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Elser JJ, Bracken MES, Cleland EE et al (2007) Global analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of primary producers in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Ecol Lett 10:1135–1142.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01113.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ensign SH, Doyle MW (2005) In-channel transient storage and associated nutrient retention: evidence from experimental manipulations. Limnol Oceanogr 50:1740–1751.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2005.50.6.1740 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ensign SH, Doyle MW (2006) Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks. J Geophys Res Biogeosci 111:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JG000114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fellows CS, Valett HM, Dahm CN et al (2006) Coupling nutrient uptake and energy flow in headwater streams. Ecosystems 9:788–804.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-006-0005-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Findlay S, Sobczak WV (1996) Variability in removal of dissolved organic carbon in hyporheic sediments. J North Am Benthol Soc 15:35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fisher SG, Likens GE (1973) Energy flow in bear Brook, New Hampshire: an integrative approach to stream ecosystem metabolism. Ecol Monogr 43:421–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gardner KK, McGlynn BL, Marshall LA (2011) Quantifying watershed sensitivity to spatially variable N loading and the relative importance of watershed N retention mechanisms. Water Resour Res 47:1–21.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010WR009738 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Genereux DP, Hemond HH (1992) Determination of gas exchange rate constants for a small stream on walker branch watershed, Tennessee. Water Resour Res 28:2365–2374.  https://doi.org/10.1029/92WR01083 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Godsey SE, Kirchner JW, Clow DW (2009) Concentration—discharge relationships reflect chemostatic characteristics of US catchments. Hydrol Process 23:1844–1864.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7315 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gomez-Velez JD, Harvey JW, Cardenas MB, Kiel B (2015) Denitrification in the Mississippi River network controlled by flow through river bedforms. Nat Geosci.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2567 Google Scholar
  43. Grimm NB (1987) Nitrogen dynamics during succession in a desert stream. Ecology 68:1157–1170.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1939200 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Grimm NB, Fisher SG (1989) Stability of periphyton and macroinvertebrates to disturbance by flash floods in a desert stream. J North Am Benthol Soc 8:293–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hall RO, Tank JL (2003) Ecosystem metabolism controls nitrogen uptake in streams in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Limnol Oceanogr 48:1120–1128.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2003.48.3.1120 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hall RO, Bernhardt ES, Likens GE (2002) Relating nutrient uptake with transient storage in forested mountain streams. Limnol Oceanogr 47:255–265.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2002.47.1.0255 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hall RO, Baker MA, Arp CD, Koch BJ (2009a) Hydrologic control of nitrogen removal, storage, and export in a mountain stream. Limnol Oceanogr 54:2128–2142.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2009.54.6.2128 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hall RO, Tank JL, Sobota DJ et al (2009b) Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by Total uptake 15 N addition experiments: total uptake. Limnol Oceanogr 54:653–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hanley KW, Wollheim WM, Salisbury J et al (2013) Controls on dissolved organic carbon quantity and chemical character in temperate rivers of North America. Global Biogeochem Cycles 27:492–504.  https://doi.org/10.1002/gbc.20044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Harpole WS, Ngai JT, Cleland EE et al (2011) Nutrient co-limitation of primary producer communities. Ecol Lett 14:852–862.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01651.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Harvey J (2016) Hydrologic exchange flows and their ecological consequences in river corridors. In: Stream ecosystems in a changing environment, pp 1–83.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-405890-3.00001-4
  52. Harvey JW, Wagner BJ, Bencala KE (1996) Evaluating the reliability of the stream tracer approach to characterize stream-subsurface water exchange. Water Resour Res 32:2441–2451.  https://doi.org/10.1029/96WR01268 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Heffernan JB, Cohen MJ (2010) Direct and indirect coupling of primary production and diel nitrate dynamics in a subtropical spring-fed river. Limnol Oceanogr 55:677–688.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2009.55.2.0677 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hoellein TJ, Tank JL, Rosi-Marshall EJ et al (2007) Controls on spatial and temporal variation of nutrient uptake in three Michigan headwater streams. Limnol Oceanogr 52:1964–1977.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2007.52.5.1964 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hoellein TJ, Bruesewitz DA, Richardson DC (2013) Revisiting Odum (1956): a synthesis of aquatic ecosystem metabolism. Limnol Oceanogr 58:2089–2100.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2013.58.6.2089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jencso KG, McGlynn BL, Gooseff MN et al (2010) Hillslope hydrologic connectivity controls riparian groundwater turnover: implications of catchment structure for riparian buffering and stream water sources. Water Resour Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009wr008818 Google Scholar
  57. Johnson MS, Lehmann J, Riha SJ et al (2008) CO2 efflux from Amazonian headwater streams represents a significant fate for deep soil respiration. Geophys Res Lett 35:L17401.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034619 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Johnson LT, Tank JL, Arango CP (2009) The effect of land use on dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen uptake in streams. Freshw Biol 54:2335–2350.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.2009.02261.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jones JB, Stanley EH, Mulholland PJ (2003) Long-term decline in carbon dioxide supersaturation in rivers across the contiguous United States. Geophys Res Lett 30:1495.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL017056 Google Scholar
  60. Kilpatrick FA, Cobb ED (1985) Measurement of discharge using tracers. Report of the U.S. Geological Survey, Techniques of Water Resources Investigations Book 3, Chap A16, pp 6–15Google Scholar
  61. Kothawala DN, Ji X, Laudon H et al (2015) The relative influence of land cover, hydrology and in-stream processing on the composition of dissolved organic matter in boreal streams. J Geophys Res Biogeosciences 120:1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JG002946 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lambert T, Teodoru CR, Nyoni FC et al (2016) Degradation of dissolved organic matter in a large tropical river. Biogeosci Discuss 13:2727–2741.  https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2016-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lapierre J-F, Guillemette F, Berggren M, del Giorgio PA (2013) Increases in terrestrially derived carbon stimulate organic carbon processing and CO2 emissions in boreal aquatic ecosystems. Nat Commun 4:2972.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3972 Google Scholar
  64. Lautz LK, Siegel DI (2007) The effect of transient storage on nitrate uptake lengths in streams: an inter-site comparison. Hydrol Process 21:3533–3548.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.6569 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Likens GE, Bormann FH, Johnson NM et al (1970) Effects of forest cutting and herbicide treatment on nutrient budgets in the hubbard brook watershed-ecosystem. Ecol Monogr 40:23–47.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1942440 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lupon A, Martí E, Sabater F, Bernal S (2015) Green light: gross primary production influences seasonal stream N export by controlling fine-scale N dynamics. Ecology 97:133–144.  https://doi.org/10.1890/14-2296.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lutz BD, Bernhardt ES, Roberts BJ, Mulholland PJ (2011) Examining the coupling of carbon and nitrogen cycles in Appalachian streams: the role of dissolved organic nitrogen. Ecology 92:720–732.  https://doi.org/10.1890/10-0899.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mallard J, McGlynn B, Covino T (2014) Lateral inflows, stream-groundwater exchange, and network geometry influence stream water composition. Water Resour Res 50:4603–4623.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2013WR014944 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Marti E, Sabater F (1996) High variability in temporal and spatial nutrient retention in mediterranean streams. Ecology 77:854–869.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2265506 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Marzolf ER, Mulholland PJ, Steinman AD (1994) Improvements to the diurnal upstream-downstream dissolved oxygen change technique for determining whole-stream metabolism in small streams. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 51:1591–1599.  https://doi.org/10.1139/f94-158 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mason SJK, McGlynn BL, Poole GC (2012) Hydrologic response to channel reconfiguration on Silver Bow Creek, Montana. J Hydrol 438–439:125–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.03.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Melching CS, Flores HE, Flores HE (1999) Reaeration equations derived from U.S. Geological Survey database. J Environ Eng.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)0733-9372(1999)125:5(407) Google Scholar
  73. Meyer JL, Likens GE (1979) Transport and transformation of phosphorus in a forest stream ecosystem. Ecology 60:1255.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1936971 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mincemoyer SA, Birdsall JL (2006) Vascular flora of the tenderfoot creek experimental forest, Little Belt Mountains, Montana. Madrono 53:211–222.  https://doi.org/10.3120/0024-9637(2006)53 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mineau MM, Wollheim WM, Buffam I et al (2016) Dissolved organic carbon uptake in streams: a review and assessment of reach-scale measurements. J Geophys Res Biogeosci.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JG003204 Google Scholar
  76. Mulholland PJ (1992) Regulation of nutrient concentrations in a temperate forest stream: roles of upland, riparian, and instream processes. Limnol Oceanogr 37:1512–1526.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1992.37.7.1512 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mulholland PJ (2004) The importance of in-stream uptake for regulating stream concentrations and outputs of N and P from a forested watershed: evidence from long-term chemistry records for Walker Branch Watershed. Biogeochemistry 70:403–426.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-004-0364-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mulholland PJ, Marzolf ER, Webster JR, Hart DR (1997) Evidence that hyporheic zones increase heterotrophic metabolism and phosphorus uptake in forest streams. Limnol Oceanogr 42:443–451.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1997.42.3.0443 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mulholland PJ, Tank JL, Webster JR et al (2002) Can uptake length in streams be determined by nutrient addition experiments? Results from an interbiome comparison study. J North Am Benthol Soc 21:544–560.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1468429 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mulholland PJ, Roberts BJ, Hill WR, Smith JG (2009) Stream ecosystem responses to the 2007 spring freeze in the southeastern United States: unexpected effects of climate change. Glob Chang Biol 15:1767–1776.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01864.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Newbold JD, Elwood JW, O’Neill RV, van Winkle W (1981) Measuring nutrient spiralling in streams. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 38:860–863.  https://doi.org/10.1139/f81-114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pacific VJ, Jencso KG, McGlynn BL (2010) Variable flushing mechanisms and landscape structure control stream DOC export during snowmelt in a set of nested catchments. Biogeochemistry 99:193–211.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-009-9401-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Patil S, Covino TP, Packman AI et al (2013) Intrastream variability in solute transport: hydrologic and geomorphic controls on solute retention. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 118:413–422.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JF002455 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Payn RA, Gooseff MN, McGlynn BL et al (2009) Channel water balance and exchange with subsurface flow along a mountain headwater stream in Montana, United States. Water Resour Res 45:1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008WR007644 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pennino MJ, Kaushal SS, Beaulieu JJ et al (2014) Effects of urban stream burial on nitrogen uptake and ecosystem metabolism: implications for watershed nitrogen and carbon fluxes. Biogeochemistry 121:247–269.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-014-9958-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Peterson BJ, Wollheim WM, Mulholland PJ et al (2001) Control of nitrogen export from watersheds by headwater streams. Science 292(80):86–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Piper LR, Cross WF, McGlynn BL (2017) Colimitation and the coupling of N and P uptake kinetics in oligotrophic mountain streams. Biogeochemistry.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-017-0294-0 Google Scholar
  88. Raymond PA, Hartmann J, Lauerwald R et al (2013) Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters. Nature 503:355–359.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12760 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Raymond PA, Saiers JE, Sobczak WV (2016) Hydrological and biogeochemical controls on watershed dissolved organic matter transport: pulse-shunt concept. Ecology 97:5–16.  https://doi.org/10.1890/07-1861.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Redfield AC (1958) The biological control of chemical factors in the environment. Am Sci 46:205–221Google Scholar
  91. Resh VH, Brown AV, Covich AP et al (1988) The role of disturbance in stream ecology. J North Am Benthol Soc 7:433–455.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1467300 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Roberts BJ, Mulholland PJ (2007) In-stream biotic control on nutrient biogeochemistry in a forested stream, West Fork of Walker Branch. J Geophys Res 112:G04002.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JG000422 Google Scholar
  93. Schade JD, MacNeill K, Thomas SA et al (2011) The stoichiometry of nitrogen and phosphorus spiralling in heterotrophic and autotrophic streams. Freshw Biol 56:424–436.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.2010.02509.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Schade JD, Seybold EC, Drake T et al (2016) Variation in summer nitrogen and phosphorus uptake among Siberian headwater streams. Polar Res 35:1–28.  https://doi.org/10.3402/polar.v35.24571 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Simon KS, Townsend CR, Biggs BJF, Bowden WB (2005) Temporal variation of N and P uptake in 2 New Zealand streams. J North Am Benthol Soc 24:1–18.  https://doi.org/10.1899/0887-3593(2005)024<0001:TVONAP>2.0.CO;2
  96. Sinsabaugh RL (1997) Large-scale trends for stream benthic respiration. J North Am Benthol Soc 16:119–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sinsabaugh RL, Turner BL, Talbot JM et al (2016) Stoichiometry of microbial carbin use efficiency in soils. Ecol Monogr 86:172–189.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sterner RW, Elser JJ (2002) Ecological stoichiometry: the biology of elements from molecules to the biosphere. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  99. Stream Solute Workshop (1990) Concepts and methods for assessing solute dynamics in stream ecosystems. J North Am Benthol Soc 9:95–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tank JJL, Rosi-Marshall EJE, Griffiths NA et al (2010) A review of allochthonous organic matter dynamics and metabolism in streams. J North Am Benthol Soc 29:118–146.  https://doi.org/10.1899/08-170.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Taylor PG, Townsend AR (2010) Stoichiometric control of organic carbon-nitrate relationships from soils to the sea. Nature 464:1178–1181.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08985 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Valett HM, Morrice JA, Dahm CN, Campana ME (1996) Parent lithology, surface-groundwater exchange, and nitrate retention in headwater streams. Limnol Oceanogr 41:333–345.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1996.41.2.0333 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Vitousek PM, Aber JD, Howarth RW et al (1997) Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecol Appl 7:737–750Google Scholar
  104. Webster JR, Mulholland PJ, Tank JL et al (2003) Factors affecting ammonium uptake in streams–an inter-biome perspective. Freshw Biol 48:1329–1352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wilkinson GM, Pace ML, Cole JJ (2013) Terrestrial dominance of organic matter in north temperate lakes. Global Biogeochem Cycles 27:43–51.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GB004453 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wollheim WM, Pellerin BA, Vörösmarty CJ, Hopkinson CS (2005) N retention in urbanizing headwater catchments. Ecosystems 8:871–884.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-005-0178-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wollheim WM, Vörösmarty CJ, Peterson BJ, Seitzinger SP, Hopkinson CS (2006) Relationship between river size and nutrient removal. Geophys Res Lett 33(6).  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL025845.
  108. Wollheim WM, Stewart RJ, Aiken GR et al (2015) Removal of terrestrial DOC in aquatic ecosystems of a temperate river network. Geophys Res Lett 42:6671–6679.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL064647 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nicholas School of the Environment, University Program in EcologyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Nicholas School of the EnvironmentDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations