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Do storm synoptic patterns affect biogeochemical fluxes from temperate deciduous forest canopies?

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Abstract

The volumetric quantity and biogeochemical quality of throughfall and stemflow in forested ecosystems are influenced by biological characteristics as well environmental and storm meteorological conditions. Previous attempts at connecting forest water and nutrient cycles to storm characteristics have focused on individual meteorological variables, but we propose a unified approach by examining the storm system in its entirety. In this study, we use methods from synoptic climatology to distinguish sub-canopy biogeochemical fluxes between storm events to understand the response of forest ecosystems to daily weather patterns. For solute inputs tied to atmospheric deposition (NH4 +, NO3 , SO4 2−, Na+, Cl), stagnant air masses resulted in high inputs in rainfall (273.42, 81.81, 52.30, 156.99, 128.70 μmol L−1), throughfall (355.05, 130.66, 83.24, 239.55, 261.32 μmol L−1), and stemflow (338.34, 182.75, 153.74, 125.75, 272.88 μmol L−1). For inputs tied to canopy exchange (DOC, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+), a clear distinction was observed between throughfall and stemflow pathways. The largest throughfall concentrations were in the Great Lakes Low (1794.80, 352.96, 72.75, 74.37 μmol L−1) while the largest stemflow concentrations were in the Weak Upper Trough (3681.78, 497.34, 82.36, 72.46 μmol L−1). Stemflow leaching is likely derived from a larger reservoir of leachable cations in the tree canopy than throughfall, with stemflow fluxes maximized during synoptic types with greater rainfall amounts and throughfall fluxes diluted. For flux-based enrichment ratios, water volume, storm magnitude, antecedent dry period, and seasonality were important factors, further illustrating the influence of synoptic characteristics on wash-off, leaching and, ultimately, dilution processes within the canopy.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support received from the US National Science Foundation (Ref. Nos. EAR-0809205, BCS-1233592, BCS-1003047) and the University of Delaware Mather Research Award (2012). Many thanks are given to the Delaware Environmental Observing System (DEOS) for meteorological data; to Ranger Rachel Temby and the Maryland Department of Natural Resources for access to the research site at Fair Hill Natural Resource Management Area. The authors extend sincere thanks to the Associate Editor and anonymous reviewers that provided comments to improve this manuscript. This material is based upon work supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under Award Number MISZ-069390.

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Correspondence to C. M. Siegert.

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See Fig. 7.

Fig. 7
figure 7

Composite sea level pressure maps (hPa) for each synoptic type that occurred during the 2007–2012 study period and was sampled for biogeochemistry. See Table 2 for a full description of classification. Images provided by the NOAA-ESRL Physical Sciences Division, Boulder, CO from their website at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/

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Siegert, C.M., Levia, D.F., Leathers, D.J. et al. Do storm synoptic patterns affect biogeochemical fluxes from temperate deciduous forest canopies?. Biogeochemistry 132, 273–292 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-017-0300-6

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