, Volume 93, Issue 3, pp 235–252 | Cite as

Long-term effects of drainage and hay-removal on nutrient dynamics and limitation in the Biebrza mires, Poland

  • Harry Olde Venterink
  • Ignacy Kardel
  • Wiktor Kotowski
  • Wilma Peeters
  • Martin J. Wassen


To provide a reference for wetlands elsewhere we analysed soil nutrients and the vegetation of floodplains and fens in the relatively undisturbed Biebrza-valley, Poland. Additionally, by studying sites along a water-table gradient, and by comparing pairs of mown and unmown sites, we aimed with exploring long-term effects of drainage and annual hay-removal on nutrient availabilities and vegetation response. In undrained fens and floodplains, N mineralization went slowly (0–30 kg N ha−1 year−1) but it increased strongly with decreasing water table (up to 120 kg N ha−1 year−1). Soil N, P and K pools were small in the undisturbed mires. Drainage had caused a shift from fen to meadow species and the disappearance of bryophytes. Biomass of vascular plants increased with increasing N mineralization and soil P. Annual hay-removal tended to have reduced N mineralization and soil K pools, but it had increased soil P. Moreover, N concentrations in vascular plants were not affected, but P and K concentrations and therefore N:P and N:K ratios tended to be changed. Annual hay-removal had induced a shift from P to K limitation in the severely drained fen, and from P to N limitation in the floodplain. The low nutrient availabilities and productivity of the undisturbed Biebrza mires illustrate the vulnerability of such mires to eutrophication in Poland and elsewhere. In nutrient-enriched areas, hay removal may prevent productivity increase of the vegetation, but also may severely alter N:P:K stoichiometry, induce K-limitation at drained sites, and alter vegetation structure and composition.


Ecological stoichiometry Fen Floodplain Nitrogen mineralization Nutrient limitation Phosphorus Potassium Wetland 



This study was funded by the Dutch PIN-MATRA fund for Nature Management in Central and Eastern Europe (project 2001/039).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry Olde Venterink
    • 1
  • Ignacy Kardel
    • 2
  • Wiktor Kotowski
    • 3
  • Wilma Peeters
    • 4
  • Martin J. Wassen
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental RestorationWarsaw University of Life Sciences SGGWWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Department of Plant Ecology and Environmental Conservation, Institute of BotanyUniversity of WarsawWarsawPoland
  4. 4.Environmental Sciences, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and InnovationUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

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