The current research focuses on the production and characterization of glycolipid biosurfactant (GB) from Pseudomonas plecoglossicida and its anthelmintic activity against Caenorhabditis elegans. The GB was purified and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. Anthelmintic activity of GB was studied at six different pharmacological doses from 10 to 320 µg/mL on C. elegans. Exposure of different developmental stages (L1, L2, L3, L4 and adult) of C. elegans to the GB reduced the survivability of worms in a dose and time-dependent manner. Adult and L4 worms were least susceptible, while L1, L2 and L3 were more susceptible to GB when compared to the untreated control. An increased exposure period drastically reduced the survival rate of worms and reduction in LC50 value. The GB significantly inhibited the development of C. elegans with an IC50 value of 53.14 µg/mL and even reduced the adult body length and egg hatching. Fecundity rate of the worms treated with GB at 20, 40 and 80 µg/mL decreased from 261.90 ± 3.21 to 239.70 ± 5.58, 164.20 ± 5.94 and 44.80 ± 6.22 eggs per worm, respectively. Besides the toxicological effects, prolonged exposure to GB significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.0001) the lifespan of wild type worms under standard laboratory conditions. Additionally, GB was found to be lethal towards ivermectin and albendazole resistant C. elegans strains. Overall, the data indicated that the GB extracted from P. plecoglossicida could be utilized for the control of non-susceptible and resistant gastrointestinal nematodes towards broad spectrum anthelmintic drugs, ivermectin and albendazole.
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Authors are grateful to Caenorhabditis Genetic Center which is funded by NIH Office of Research Infrastructure Programs (P40 OD010440) for providing all C. elegans strain. The author DS acknowledges Bharathiar University for University Research Fellowship, Grant No: C2/9214/URF/2014.
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