Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Construction of deer fences restores the diversity of butterflies and bumblebees as well as flowering plants in semi-natural grassland

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Biodiversity and Conservation Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The abundance of both flower-visiting insects and flowering plants in semi-natural grasslands in temperate zones has declined as a result of overbrowsing by deer. The construction of deer fences is an effective method for biodiversity conservation because these fences prevent the invasion of deer. However, few studies have elucidated the biodiversity conservation effects of deer fences in semi-natural grasslands. Here we investigated the effects of the construction of deer fences on the diversity of butterflies, bumblebees, and flowering plants on the Kirigamine Plateau, Nagano Prefecture, Japan, which is covered by semi-natural grassland. The number of species of flowering plants inside the deer fences was higher than that outside the deer fences. The numbers of individuals and species of flower-visiting butterflies and bumblebees also tended to be higher inside the deer fences than outside the deer fences. On the other hand, there tended to be no difference in the number of individuals and species of non-flower-visiting butterflies inside and outside the deer fences. The diversity of flowering plants, butterflies, and bumblebees within the fenced areas was not substantially affected by the size of the fenced-off area. Our findings suggested that the construction of deer fences can contribute to the conservation of both flower-visiting insects and flowering plants in semi-natural grassland.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Baines D, Andrew M (2003) Marking of deer fences to reduce frequency of collisions by woodland grouse. Biol Conserv 110:169–176

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brousseau PM, Hébert C, Cloutier C, Côté SD (2013) Short-term effects of reduced white-tailed deer density on insect communities in a strongly overbrowsed boreal forest ecosystem. Biodivers Conserv 22:77–92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brückmann SV, Krauss J, Steffan-Dewenter I (2010) Butterfly and plant specialists suffer from reduced connectivity in fragmented landscapes. J Appl Ecol 47:799–809

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chips MJ, Yerger EH, Hervanek A, Nuttle T, Royo AA, Pruitt JN, McGlynn TP, Riggall CL, Carson WP (2015) The indirect impact of long-term overbrowsing on insects in the Allegheny national forest region of Pennsylvania. Northeast Nat 22:782–798

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ebeling A, Klein AM, Schumacher J, Weisser WW, Tscharntke T (2008) How does plant richness affect pollinator richness and temporal stability of flower visits? Oikos 117:1808–1815

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gill RM, Fuller RJ (2007) The effects of deer browsing on woodland structure and songbirds in lowland Britain. Ibis 149:119–127

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hashimoto Y, Tochimoto D, Kuroda A, Tamura K, Fukui S (2014) Reduction in grasslands plant species diversity of Miscanthus sinensis community in an area of high sika deer density. J Jpn Soc Reveget Tech 39:395–399 (in Japanese with English summary)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kato M, Okuyama Y (2004) Changes in the biodiversity of a deciduous forest ecosystem caused by an increase in the sika deer population at Ashiu, Japan. Contrib Biol Lab Kyoto Univ 2:437–448

    Google Scholar 

  • Kishimoto R, Aizawa H, Yoshioka M, Ishida Y, Mitsui K, Suga S (2010) Population dynamics of sika deer Cervus nippon monitored by spotlight-census in Kirigamine, central Japan. Bull Nagano Environ Conserv Res Ins 6:13–16 (in Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Morecroft MD, Taylor ME, Ellwood SA, Quinn SA (2001) Impacts of deer herbivory on ground vegetation at Wytham Woods, central England. Forestry 74:251–257

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nagano Prefecture (2001) Second class wildlife management plan in Nagano Prefecture (Management of Sika deer, first term). Nagano Prefecture, Nagano (in Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Nagano Prefecture (2014) Red List, Nagano edn. Nagano Prefecture, Nagano (in Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Nagano Prefecture (2015) Second class wildlife management plan in Nagano Prefecture (Management of Japanese serow, fourth term). Nagano Prefecture, Nagano (in Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Nagano Prefecture (2016) Second class wildlife management plan in Nagano Prefecture (Management of Sika deer, fourth term). Nagano Prefecture, Nagano (in Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Nakahama N, Yamasaki M, Takayanagi A (2016) Mass emergence of a specialist sawfly species on unpalatable herbs under severe feeding pressure by sika deer. Entomol sci 19:268–274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Okuda K, Tamura Y, Seki Y, Yamawo A, Koganezawa M (2014) Effects of a deer-proof fence in a high-deer-density area on the recovery of bumblebee communities in Oku-Nikko, Japan. JPN J Conserv Ecol 19:109–118 (in Japanese with English summary)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Orford KA, Murray PJ, Vaughan IP, Memmott J (2016) Modest enhancements to conventional grassland diversity improve the provision of pollination services. J Appl Ecol 53:906–915

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ozeki M, Kishimoto R (2009) Effects on vegetation by Sika deer (Cervus nippon) grazing: Grazing impact on Hemerocallis dumortieri var. esculenta and H. citrina var. verspertina in Kirigamine, central Japan. Bull Nagano Environ Conserv Res Ins 5:21–25 (in Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Pellerin S, Huot J, Côté SD (2006) Long-term effects of deer browsing and trampling on the vegetation of peatlands. Biol Conserv 128:316–326

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • R Core Team (2018) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. https://finzi.psych.upenn.edu/R/library/dplR/doc/timeseries-dplR.pdf Accessed 01 December 2018

  • Sakaguchi S, Fujiki D, Inoue M, Yamasaki M, Fukushima K, Takayanagi A (2012) The effects of deer browsing on forest regeneration processes and diversity of tree communities in a mountainous region with heavy snowfall of Central Japan. For Res Kyoto 78:57–69 (in Japanese with English summary)

    Google Scholar 

  • Sakata Y, Yamasaki M (2015) Deer overbrowsing on autumn-flowering plants causes bumblebee decline and impairs pollination service. Ecosphere 6:274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shirouzu T (2006) The Butterflies of Japan in Color. Gakken, Tokyo (in Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Sjödin NE, Bengtsson J, Ekbom B (2008) The influence of grazing intensity and landscape composition on the diversity and abundance of flower-visiting insects. J Appl Ecol 45:763–772

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Squires VR, Dengler J, Hua L, Feng H (eds) (2018) Grasslands of the world: Diversity, management and conservation. CRC Press, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  • Stafford KC III (1993) Reduced abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) with exclusion of deer by electric fencing. J Med Entomol 30:986–996

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tabuchi K, Ueda A, Ozaki K (2010) Contrasting effects of deer browsing on oviposition preference, neonate survival and potential fecundity of a galling insect. Ecoscience 17:379–386

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tadauchi O, Murao R (eds) (2014) An Illustrated Guide to Japanese Bees. Bun-ichi Sogo Shuppan Co., Tokyo (in Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Takatsuki S (2009) Effects of sika deer on vegetation in Japan: a review. Biol Conserv 142:1922–1929

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Takii A, Izumiyama S, Okumura T, Mochizuki T (2013) Utilization of grassland and effect of electric fence on sika deer in Kirigamine Highland, Nagano. Bull Shinshu Univ AFC 11:17–23 (in Japanese with English summary)

    Google Scholar 

  • Tamura A (2010) Effect of time lag of establishment of deer-proof fences on the recovery of perennial herbs in a cool temperate deciduous forest diminished by sika deer browsing in the Tanzawa Mountains, central Japan. Jpn J Conserv Ecol 15:255–264 (in Japanese with English summary)

    Google Scholar 

  • The Board of Education of Suwa City (1981) Vegetation of Kirigamine (Part I): Scientific researches of the Kirigamine moors. Bd Educ Suwa City, Suwa (in Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Uchida K, Ushimaru A (2014) Biodiversity declines due to abandonment and intensification of agricultural lands: patterns and mechanisms. Ecol Monograph 84:637–658

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Uchida K, Hiraiwa MK, Ushimaru A (2016) Plant and herbivorous insect diversity loss are greater than null model expectations due to land-use changes in agro-ecosystems. Biol Conserv 201:270–276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • VerCauteren KC, Lavelle MJ, Hygnstrom S (2006) From the field: Fences and deer-damage management: A review of designs and efficacy. Wildl Soc Bull 34:191–200

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yamanouchi T, Shutoh K, Osawa T, Yonekura K, Kato S, Shiga T (2019) A checklist of Japanese plant names ver. 1.00. https://www.gbif.jp/v2/activities/wamei_checklist.html. Accessed 15 November 2019

  • Yonekura K, Kajita T (2003) BG plants YList: an online service of Japanese plant names, including a nomenclature index (in Japanese) https://ylist.info. Accessed 15 November 2019

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank Nagano Prefecture Suwa Regional Development Bureau and Kirigamine Nature Conservation Council for permitting our field survey in Kirigamine Plateau. We also thank Daiki Yamada (The University of Tokyo), Masataka Shinmura (Kanagawa University), Toshiya Yokoyama (Kanagawa University), and Yushin Shinoda (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology) for helping out with the field survey. This work was supported by Pro Natura Foundation Japan's 28th Pro Natura Fund.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Naoyuki Nakahama.

Additional information

Communicated by Louise Amy Ashton.

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (XLSX 14 kb)

Supplementary file2 (XLSX 10 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nakahama, N., Uchida, K., Koyama, A. et al. Construction of deer fences restores the diversity of butterflies and bumblebees as well as flowering plants in semi-natural grassland. Biodivers Conserv 29, 2201–2215 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-020-01969-9

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-020-01969-9

Keywords

Navigation