Lethal management may hinder population recovery in Iberian wolves

Abstract

In previous centuries, wolves were extirpated across much of their range worldwide, but they started to recover in Europe since the end of last century. A general pattern of this recovery is the expansion of the range occupied by local populations. The Iberian wolf population, shared by Portugal and Spain, reached its lowest extent and abundance around the middle of the twentieth century. Unlike other populations in Europe, its range recovery and pack counts seem to have stalled since the first Spanish country-wide census of 1986–1988. The population shows low effective population size and remains isolated from other European wolves. This is unexpected given the protection offered by European legislation, i.e., the Habitats Directive, and the apparent availability of habitat outside its present range. We compiled records of wolves killed legally in Spain, reviewed the legislative and management framework for the Iberian wolf population, and discussed potential implications of a policy of lethal management for the ecology, genetics and conservation status of wolves in the Iberian Peninsula. Wolves are strictly protected in Portugal. Meanwhile, they are subject to culling and hunting in Spain. No wolf was legally removed by culling or hunting during the study period in Portugal, whereas 623 wolves were legally killed in Spain between 2008 and 2013. Twenty-nine of those wolves were killed in areas under strict protection according to European legislation. Despite the transboundary nature of this wolf population, we are not aware of coordinated conservation plans. Management is further fragmented at the sub-national level in Spain, both due to the authority of Spanish autonomous regions over their wildlife, and because wolves were listed in multiple annexes of the Habitats Directive. Fragmentation of management was apparent in the uneven adherence to the obligations of the Habitats Directive among Spanish regions. A similar situation is found for other large predator populations in Europe. We suggest that lethal management as carried out in Spain is a hindrance to transit and settlement of wolves, both within and beyond the Iberian wolf population. Reducing the pressure of lethal management appears a feasible policy change to improve the conservation status of the population and foster transboundary connectivity.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Adams LG, Stephenson RO, Dale BW et al (2008) Population Dynamics and Harvest Characteristics of Wolves in the Central Brooks Range. Alaska. Wildl Monogr. https://doi.org/10.2193/2008-012

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Alexander KA, Sanderson CE (2014) Conserving carnivores: more than numbers. Science 343:1199. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.343.6176.1199-a

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Andersen LW, Harms V, Caniglia R et al (2015) Long-distance dispersal of a wolf, Canis lupus, in northwestern Europe. Mammal Res 60:163–168. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13364-015-0220-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Apollonio M, Andersen R, Putman R (2010) European ungulates and their management in the twenty-first century. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  5. Artelle KA, Anderson SC, Cooper AB et al (2013) Confronting uncertainty in wildlife management: performance of Grizzly Bear Management. PLoS ONE 8:e78041. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078041

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. Blanco JC, Cortés Y (2007) Dispersal patterns, social structure and mortality of wolves living in agricultural habitats in Spain. J Zool 273:114–124. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2007.00305.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Blanco JC, Cortés Y (2012) Surveying wolves without snow: a critical review of the methods used in Spain. Hystrix Italian J Mamm 23:35–48. https://doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-23.1-4670

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Blanco JC, Reig S, de la Cuesta L (1992) Distribution, status and conservation problems of the wolf Canis lupus in Spain. Biol Conserv 60:73–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(92)91157-N

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Boitani L, Ciucci P, Raganella-Pelliccioni E (2010) Ex-post compensation payments for wolf predation on livestock in Italy: a tool for conservation? Wildl Res 37:722–730. https://doi.org/10.1071/WR10029

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Bolnick DI, Svanbäck R, Fordyce JA et al (2003) The ecology of individuals: incidence and implications of individual specialization. Am Nat 161:1–28. https://doi.org/10.1086/343878

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Borg BL, Brainerd SM, Meier TJ, Prugh LR (2014) Impacts of breeder loss on social structure, reproduction and population growth in a social canid. J Anim Ecol 84:177–187. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12256

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Breitenmoser U (1998) Large predators in the Alps: the fall and rise of man’s competitors. Biol Conserv 83:279–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(97)00084-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Chapron G, López-Bao JV (2014) Conserving carnivores: politics in play. Science 343:1199–1200. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.343.6176.1199-b

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Chapron G, Treves A (2016) Blood does not buy goodwill: allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore. Proc R Soc B 283:20152939. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2015.2939

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Chapron G, Kaczensky P, Linnell JDC et al (2014a) Recovery of large carnivores in Europe’s modern human-dominated landscapes. Science 346:1517–1519. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1257553

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Chapron G, Kaczensky P, Linnell JDC et al (2014b) Data from: recovery of large carnivores in Europe’s modern human-dominated landscapes. Dryad Digit Repos. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.986mp

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Chapron G, Wikenros C, Liberg O et al (2016) Estimating wolf (Canis lupus) population size from number of packs and an individual based model. Ecol Model 339:33–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2016.08.012

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Colino-Rabanal VJ, Lizana M, Peris SJ (2011) Factors influencing wolf Canis lupus roadkills in Northwest Spain. Eur J Wildl Res 57:399–409. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-010-0446-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Council of Europe (1979) Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). https://www.coe.int/en/web/bern-convention. Accessed 11 Nov 2018

  20. Creel S, Rotella JJ (2010) Meta-Analysis of Relationships between Human Offtake, Total Mortality and Population Dynamics of Gray Wolves (Canis lupus). PLoS ONE 5:e12918. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012918

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. Darimont CT (2017) Trophy hunting: science on its own can’t dictate policy. Nature 551:565. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-017-07553-6

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Darimont CT, Carlson SM, Kinnison MT et al (2009) Human predators outpace other agents of trait change in the wild. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:952–954. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0809235106

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Deinet S, Ieronymidou C, McRae L et al (2013) Wildlife comeback in Europe: The recovery of selected mammal and bird species. Final report to Rewilding Europe. ZSL, BirdLife International and the European Bird Census Council, London

    Google Scholar 

  24. Donald PF, Sanderson FJ, Burfield IJ et al (2007) International conservation policy delivers benefits for birds in Europe. Science 317:810–813. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1146002

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Echegaray J, Vilà C (2010) Noninvasive monitoring of wolves at the edge of their distribution and the cost of their conservation. Anim Conserv 13:157–161. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2009.00315.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Epstein Y, López-Bao JV, Chapron G (2015) A legal-ecological understanding of favorable conservation status for species in Europe. Conserv Lett 9:81–88. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12200

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Estes JA, Terborgh J, Brashares JS et al (2011) Trophic downgrading of planet earth. Science 333:301–306. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1205106

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. European Environment Agency (EEA) (2018) Natura 2000 data—the European network of protected sites. https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/natura-9. Accessed 11 Nov 2018

  29. European Union (1992) Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:01992L0043-20070101. Accessed 11 Nov 2018

  30. Fabbri E, Miquel C, Lucchini V et al (2007) From the Apennines to the Alps: colonization genetics of the naturally expanding Italian wolf (Canis lupus) population. Mol Ecol 16:1661–1671. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03262.x

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Fernández-Gil A, Naves J, Ordiz A et al (2016) Conflict misleads large carnivore management and conservation: brown bears and wolves in Spain. PLOS ONE 11:e0151541. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151541

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. Frankham R (1995) Effective population size/adult population size ratios in wildlife: a review. Genet Res 66:95–107. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016672308009695

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Frankham R, Bradshaw CJA, Brook BW (2014) Genetics in conservation management: revised recommendations for the 50/500 rules, Red List criteria and population viability analyses. Biol Conserv 170:56–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.12.036

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Fuller T, Mech L, Cochrane J (2003) Wolf population dynamics. In: Mech L, Boitani L (eds) Wolves: behavior, ecology, and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 131–160

    Google Scholar 

  35. Galaverni M, Caniglia R, Fabbri E et al (2016) One, no one, or one hundred thousand: how many wolves are there currently in Italy? Mam Res 61:13–24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13364-015-0247-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Gervasi V, Brøseth H, Nilsen EB et al (2015) Compensatory immigration counteracts contrasting conservation strategies of wolverines (Gulo gulo) within Scandinavia. Biol Conserv 191:632–639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.07.024

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Gilroy JJ, Ordiz A, Bischof R (2015) Carnivore coexistence: value the wilderness. Science 347:382. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.347.6220.382-a

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Gippoliti S, Brito D, Cerfolli F et al (2018) Europe as a model for large carnivores conservation: is the glass half empty or half full? J Nat Conserv 41:73–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2017.11.007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Gómez-Sánchez D, Olalde I, Sastre N et al (2018) On the path to extinction: inbreeding and admixture in a declining grey wolf population. Mol Ecol 27:3599–3612. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.14824

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Grilo C, Lucas PM, Fernández-Gil A et al (2018) Refuge as major habitat driver for wolf presence in human-modified landscapes. Anim Conserv. https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12435

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Gude JA, Mitchell MS, Russell RE et al (2012) Wolf population dynamics in the U.S. Northern Rocky Mountains are affected by recruitment and human-caused mortality. J Wildl Manag 76:108–118. https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.201

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Haberl H, Erb KH, Krausmann F et al (2007) Quantifying and mapping the human appropriation of net primary production in earth’s terrestrial ecosystems. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:12942–12947. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0704243104

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Hindrikson M, Remm J, Pilot M et al (2017) Wolf population genetics in Europe: a systematic review, meta-analysis and suggestions for conservation and management. Biol Rev 92:1601–1629. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12298

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Jedrzejewski W, Branicki W, Veit C et al (2005) Genetic diversity and relatedness within packs in an intensely hunted population of wolves Canis lupus. Acta Theriol (Warsz) 50:3–22. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03192614

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Kaczensky P, Chapron G, Von Arx M, et al (2012) Status, management and distribution of large carnivores–bear, lynx, wolf & wolverine–in Europe. Report by LCIE for the European Commission

  46. Kojola I, Kaartinen S, Hakala A et al (2009) Dispersal behavior and the connectivity between wolf populations in Northern Europe. J Wildl Manag 73:309–313. https://doi.org/10.2193/2007-539

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Kutal M, Váňa M, Suchomel J et al (2016) Trans-boundary edge effects in the western carpathians: the influence of hunting on large carnivore occupancy. PLoS ONE 11:e0168292. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168292

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  48. Laikre L, Jansson M, Allendorf FW et al (2013) Hunting effects on favourable conservation status of highly inbred Swedish wolves: hunting and Swedish wolves. Conserv Biol 27:248–253. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01965.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Leonard JA (2014) Ecology drives evolution in grey wolves. Evol Ecol Res 16:461–473

    Google Scholar 

  50. Leonard JA, Vilà C, Wayne RK (2005) Legacy lost: genetic variability and population size of extirpated US grey wolves. Mol Ecol 14:9–17. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02389.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Liberg O, Chapron G, Wabakken P et al (2011) Shoot, shovel and shut up: cryptic poaching slows restoration of a large carnivore in Europe. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2011.1275

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Linnell J, Salvatori V, Boitani L (2008) Guidelines for population level management plans for large carnivores in Europe. A Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe report prepared for the European Commission (contract 070501/2005/424162/MAR/B2)

  53. López-Bao JV, Blanco JC, Rodríguez A et al (2015) Toothless wildlife protection laws. Biodivers Conserv. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-015-0914-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Louvrier J, Duchamp C, Lauret V et al (2017) Mapping and explaining wolf recolonization in France using dynamic occupancy models and opportunistic data. Ecography 41:647–660. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.02874

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Ludwig D (2001) The era of management is over. Ecosystems V4:758–764. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-001-0044-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. MAGRAMA (2016) Censo 2012-2014 de lobo ibérico (Canis lupus, Linnaeus, 1758) en España. Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, Madrid. https://www.miteco.gob.es/en/biodiversidad/temas/inventarios-nacionales/censo_lobo_espana_2012_14pdf_tcm38-197304.pdf. Accessed 11 Nov 2018

  57. MARM (2009) Población y Sociedad Rural. Análisis y Prospectiva. Serie AgrInfo 12. Subdirección General de Análisis, Prospectiva y Coordinación, Subsecretaría. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino. NIPO: 770-09-195-9

  58. Mech LD, Boitani L (2003) Wolf social ecology. In: Mech LD, Boitani L (eds) Wolves: behavior, ecology, and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 1–34

    Google Scholar 

  59. Mech LD, Peterson RO (2003) Wolf-prey relations. In: Mech LD, Boitani L (eds) Wolves: behavior, ecology, and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 131–160

    Google Scholar 

  60. Mech LD, Boitani L, (IUCN SSC Wolf Specialist Group) (2010) Canis lupus. IUCN Red List Threat Species. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T3746A10049204.en

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Milanesi P, Breiner FT, Puopolo F, Holderegger R (2017) European human-dominated landscapes provide ample space for the recolonization of large carnivore populations under future land change scenarios. Ecography 40:1359–1368. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.02223

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Ministère de la Transition Écologique et Solidaire (2018) Plan national d’actions 2018–2023 sur le loup et les activités d’élevage. https://www.ecologique-solidaire.gouv.fr/plan-national-dactions-2018-2023-sur-loup-et-activites-delevage. Accessed 11 Nov 2018

  63. Novaro AJ, Funes MC, Walker RS (2005) An empirical test of source–sink dynamics induced by hunting. J Appl Ecol 42:910–920. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01067.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Ordiz A, Bischof R, Swenson JE (2013) Saving large carnivores, but losing the apex predator? Biol Conserv 168:128–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.09.024

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Padial JM, Contreras FJ, Pérez J et al (2000) Análisis de la situación y problemática del lobo (Canis lupus signatus) en Sierra Morena oriental (sur de España). Galemys 12:37–44

    Google Scholar 

  66. Palomo LJ, Gisbert J, Blanco J (2007) Atlas y libro Rojo de los mamiferos terrestres de España. Organismo Autónomo Parques Nacionales, Madrid. https://www.miteco.gob.es/es/biodiversidad/temas/inventarios-nacionales/inventario-especies-terrestres/inventario-nacional-de-biodiversidad/ieet_mamif_atlas.aspx. Accessed 11 Nov 2018

  67. Palstra FP, Fraser DJ (2012) Effective/census population size ratio estimation: a compendium and appraisal. Ecol Evol 2:2357–2365. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.329

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  68. Petrucci-Fonseca F (1990) O lobo (Canis lupus signatus Cabrera, 1907) em Portugal. Problemática da sua conservação. PhD Thesis, Universidade de Lisboa

  69. Pilot M, Jedrzejewski W, Branicki W et al (2006) Ecological factors influence population genetic structure of European grey wolves. Mol Ecol 15:4533–4553. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.03110.x

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Pilot M, Greco C, vonHoldt BM et al (2014) Genome-wide signatures of population bottlenecks and diversifying selection in European wolves. Heredity 112:428–442. https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.2013.122

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Rick JA, Moen RA, Erb JD, Strasburg JL (2017) Population structure and gene flow in a newly harvested gray wolf (Canis lupus) population. Conserv Genet 18:1091–1104. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-017-0961-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Rico M, Torrente JP (2000) Caza y rarificación del lobo en España: investigación histórica y conclusiones biológicas. Galemys 12:163–179. http://www.secem.es/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/G-12-NE-14-Rico-163-179.pdf. Accessed 11 Nov 2018

  73. Rodríguez-Freire M, Crecente-Maseda R (2008) Directional connectivity of wolf (Canis lupus) populations in Northwest Spain and anthropogenic effects on dispersal patterns. Environ Model Assess 13:35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10666-006-9078-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Rosen T, Bath A (2009) Transboundary management of large carnivores in Europe: from incident to opportunity. Conserv Lett 2:109–114. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2009.00054.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Sastre N, Vilà C, Salinas M et al (2011) Signatures of demographic bottlenecks in European wolf populations. Conserv Genet 12:701–712. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-010-0177-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Schäfer M (2012) The National Wolf Strategy in Austria: An Evaluation of the Wolf Management-Plan and its Formulation Process using the Multiple-Streams Framework. Master’s Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich

  77. Schmidt JH, Burch JW, MacCluskie MC (2017) Effects of control on the dynamics of an adjacent protected wolf population in interior Alaska: population Dynamics of Wolves in Interior Alaska. Wildl Monogr 198:1–30. https://doi.org/10.1002/wmon.1026

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Shaffer ML (1981) Minimum population sizes for species conservation. Bioscience 31:131–134. https://doi.org/10.2307/1308256

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Silva P, López-Bao JV, Llaneza L et al (2018) Cryptic population structure reveals low dispersal in Iberian wolves. Sci Rep 8:14108. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32369-3

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  80. Śmietana W, Wajda J (1997) Wolf number changes in Bieszczady National Park, Poland. Acta Theriol (Warsz) 42:241–252. https://doi.org/10.4098/AT.arch.97-26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Soulé ME (1985) What is conservation biology? Bioscience 35:727–734. https://doi.org/10.2307/1310054

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Suutarinen J, Kojola I (2017) Poaching regulates the legally hunted wolf population in Finland. Biol Conserv 215:11–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2017.08.031

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Suutarinen J, Kojola I (2018) One way or another: predictors of wolf poaching in a legally harvested wolf population. Anim Conserv. https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12409

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Svensson L, Wabakken P, Maartmann E et al (2015) Inventering av varg vintern 2014–2015. Rovdata och Viltskadecenter, SLU

    Google Scholar 

  85. Thornton DH, Wirsing AJ, Lopez-Gonzalez C et al (2018) Asymmetric cross-border protection of peripheral transboundary species. Conserv Lett 11:e12430. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12430

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Torres RT, Fonseca C (2016) Perspectives on the Iberian wolf in Portugal: population trends and conservation threats. Biodivers Conserv 25:411–425. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1061-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Treves A, Krofel M, McManus J (2016) Predator control should not be a shot in the dark. Front Ecol Environ 14:380–388. https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.1312

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Trouwborst A (2014a) The EU Habitats Directive and wolf conservation and management on the Iberian Peninsula: a legal perspective. Galemys. https://doi.org/10.7325/galemys.2014.a2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Trouwborst A (2014b) Living with success—and with wolves: addressing the legal issues raised by the unexpected homecoming of a controversial carnivore. Eur Energy Environ Law Rev 23:89–101

    Google Scholar 

  90. Trouwborst A (2015) Global large carnivore conservation and international law. Biodivers Conserv 24:1567–1588. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-015-0894-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Trouwborst A, Krofel M, Linnell JDC (2015) Legal implications of range expansions in a terrestrial carnivore: the case of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Europe. Biodivers Conserv 24:2593–2610. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-015-0948-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Trouwborst A, Boitani L, Linnell JDC (2016) Interpreting ‘favourable conservation status’ for large carnivores in Europe: how many are needed and how many are wanted? Biodivers Conserv. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1238-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Valière N, Fumagalli L, Gielly L et al (2003) Long-distance wolf recolonization of France and Switzerland inferred from non-invasive genetic sampling over a period of 10 years. Anim Conserv 6:83–92. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1367943003003111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Vilà C, Sundqvist A, Flagstad O et al (2003) Rescue of a severely bottlenecked wolf (Canis lupus) population by a single immigrant. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B 270:91–97. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2002.2184

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Wagner C, Holzapfel M, Kluth G et al (2012) Wolf (Canis lupus) feeding habits during the first eight years of its occurrence in Germany. Mamm Biol 77:196–203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2011.12.004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Wallach AD, Ritchie EG, Read J, O’Neill AJ (2009) More than mere numbers: the impact of lethal control on the social stability of a top-order predator. PLoS ONE 4:e6861. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006861

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  97. Wallach AD, Izhaki I, Toms JD et al (2015) What is an apex predator? Oikos 124:1453–1461. https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.01977

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Woodroffe R (2000) Predators and people: using human densities to interpret declines of large carnivores. Anim Conserv 3:165–173. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2000.tb00241.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This study was partially supported by the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación from the Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (Project CGL2017-83045-R AEI/FEDER UE, co-financed with FEDER). Thanks to those managers from the Spanish regional administrations that answered our information requests. Fernando Jubete, Rubén Portas and Juan Ángel de la Torre helped us compiling and interpreting lethal management data.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mario Quevedo.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human and animal rights

This study did not involve any experimentation or handling of human or animal subjects. The consent to submit the manuscript has been received explicitly from all co-authors. We all have consent from the authorities at our respective organizations to conduct this research, and to submit it for publication.

Additional information

Communicated by Xiaoli Shen.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Quevedo, M., Echegaray, J., Fernández-Gil, A. et al. Lethal management may hinder population recovery in Iberian wolves. Biodivers Conserv 28, 415–432 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-018-1668-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Extirpation
  • Favorable conservation status
  • Grey wolf
  • Habitats directive
  • Lethal management
  • Range recovery
  • Transboundary populations