Relationship between land uses and diversity of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in the southern Atlantic forest of Argentina: which are the key factors?
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The loss of natural habitats is one of the main drivers of biodiversity decline. Anthropogenic land uses preserving biotic and abiotic conditions of the native ecosystem are more suitable to preserve the native biodiversity. In this study, we explored changes in species richness and composition in different land uses of the southern Atlantic forest, considering three independent factors: (1) canopy (presence–absence), (2) type of vegetation (native–exotic) and (3) livestock (presence–absence). We expected a gradient of response in the richness and composition of the native forest dung beetle community, from land uses preserving canopy and native vegetation to open land uses with exotic vegetation. Dung beetles were sampled in protected native forests and four land uses, using two potential food resources: human dung and carrion. The species richness and composition of each habitat, as well as differences in composition and the influence of factors over diversity, were then analyzed. As expected, our results showed that land uses preserving canopy and native vegetation maintain the dung beetle diversity of the native forest. Moreover, while the three factors analyzed influenced dung beetle diversity, canopy cover was the main driver of dung beetle diversity loss. The main conclusion of this study is that the conservation of canopy (either native or exotic) is determinant to preserve highly diverse dung beetle communities and subsequently, the ecological functions performed by this taxon. However, the ecophysiological mechanism behind the response of dung beetles to habitat disturbance is poorly understood.
KeywordsCover vegetation Forest habitat Global change Livestock Microclimatic conditions Scarabaeoidea
We wish to thank Fernando Foletto, Andrés Gómez-Cifuentes, Gisele Jaime, Natalia Vespa and Soledad Soto for their help in the fieldwork. Also, we wish to thank farmers for their hospitality, Fernando Vaz-de-Mello for helping us to examine the taxonomic component in the identification of dung beetles, Santiago José Velazco for the assistance in statistical analysis and Juan Ariel Insaurralde for helping us with the map. Finally, we wish to thank anonymous reviewers who have helped to improve the manuscript. The Centro de Investigaciones del Bosque Atlántico (CeIBA) Misiones, Argentina, provided logistical support. Financial support was provided by CONICET (Project UE IBS # 22920160100130CO to M. Di Bitteti), UCAR-MAGyP (BIO 23, PIA 10105-14057 to G. Zurita) and ANPCyT (PICT-PRH 2702 to G. Zurita). National Park Administration, the Misiones Ministry of Ecology and Arauco Argentina S.A. provided the necessary permissions to collect dung beetles.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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