Relationship between land uses and diversity of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in the southern Atlantic forest of Argentina: which are the key factors?
- 225 Downloads
The loss of natural habitats is one of the main drivers of biodiversity decline. Anthropogenic land uses preserving biotic and abiotic conditions of the native ecosystem are more suitable to preserve the native biodiversity. In this study, we explored changes in species richness and composition in different land uses of the southern Atlantic forest, considering three independent factors: (1) canopy (presence–absence), (2) type of vegetation (native–exotic) and (3) livestock (presence–absence). We expected a gradient of response in the richness and composition of the native forest dung beetle community, from land uses preserving canopy and native vegetation to open land uses with exotic vegetation. Dung beetles were sampled in protected native forests and four land uses, using two potential food resources: human dung and carrion. The species richness and composition of each habitat, as well as differences in composition and the influence of factors over diversity, were then analyzed. As expected, our results showed that land uses preserving canopy and native vegetation maintain the dung beetle diversity of the native forest. Moreover, while the three factors analyzed influenced dung beetle diversity, canopy cover was the main driver of dung beetle diversity loss. The main conclusion of this study is that the conservation of canopy (either native or exotic) is determinant to preserve highly diverse dung beetle communities and subsequently, the ecological functions performed by this taxon. However, the ecophysiological mechanism behind the response of dung beetles to habitat disturbance is poorly understood.
KeywordsCover vegetation Forest habitat Global change Livestock Microclimatic conditions Scarabaeoidea
We wish to thank Fernando Foletto, Andrés Gómez-Cifuentes, Gisele Jaime, Natalia Vespa and Soledad Soto for their help in the fieldwork. Also, we wish to thank farmers for their hospitality, Fernando Vaz-de-Mello for helping us to examine the taxonomic component in the identification of dung beetles, Santiago José Velazco for the assistance in statistical analysis and Juan Ariel Insaurralde for helping us with the map. Finally, we wish to thank anonymous reviewers who have helped to improve the manuscript. The Centro de Investigaciones del Bosque Atlántico (CeIBA) Misiones, Argentina, provided logistical support. Financial support was provided by CONICET (Project UE IBS # 22920160100130CO to M. Di Bitteti), UCAR-MAGyP (BIO 23, PIA 10105-14057 to G. Zurita) and ANPCyT (PICT-PRH 2702 to G. Zurita). National Park Administration, the Misiones Ministry of Ecology and Arauco Argentina S.A. provided the necessary permissions to collect dung beetles.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Andresen E, Feer F (2005) The role of dung beetles as secondary seed dispersers and their effect on plant regeneration in tropical rainforests. In: Forget PM, Lambert JE, Hulme PE, Vander Wall SB (eds) Predation, dispersal and seedling establishment. CABI International, Wallingford, pp 331–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bogoni JA, Graipel ME, Volkmer de Castilho P, Moreli Fantacini F, Villanova Kuhnen V, Ribeiro Luiz M, Bernardes Maccarini T, Marcon CB, Pimentel Teixeira CS, Tortato MA, Vaz-de-Mello FZ, Hernández MIM (2016) Contributions of the mammal community, habitat structure, and spatial distance to dung beetle community structure. Biodivers Conserv 25:1661–1675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Campanello PI, Montti L, Goldstein G, Mac Donagh P (2009) Reduced impact logging and post-harvesting forest management in the Atlantic Forest: alternative approaches to enhance canopy tree growth and regeneration and to reduce the impact of invasive species. In: Grossberg SP (ed) forest management. Nova Science, New York, pp 39–59Google Scholar
- Chao A, Ma KH, Hsieh TC (2016) iNEXT (iNterpolation and EXTrapolation) Online: software for interpolation and extrapolation of species diversity. Program and user’s guide. http://chao.stat.nthu.edu.tw/wordpress/software_download/
- Clarke KR, Gorley RN (2006) PRIMER v6. User manual/tutorial. PRIMER-E, PlymouthGoogle Scholar
- Davis ALV, Frolov AV, Scholtz CH (2008) The African dung beetle genera. Protea Book Publishers, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
- Dinno A (2017) Conover.test: conover-iman test of multiple comparisons using rank sums. R package version 1.1.4. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=conover.test. Accessed 2nd Dec 2017
- Halffter G, Halffter V (2009) Why and where coprophagous beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) eat seed, fruits or vegetable detritus. Bol SEA 45:1–22Google Scholar
- Halffter G, Matthews EG (1966) The natural history of dung beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). Folia Entomol Mex 14:1–312Google Scholar
- Halffter G, Favila ME, Halffter V (1992) A comparative study of the structure of the scarab guild in Mexican tropical rain forests and derived ecosystems. Folia Entomol Mex 84:131–156Google Scholar
- Izquierdo AE, De Angelo CD, Aide TM (2008) Thirty years of human demography and land use change in the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina: an evaluation of the forest transition model. Ecol Soc 13:3. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art3/
- Lobo JM, Lumaret JP, Jay-Robert P (1998) Sampling dung beetles in the French Mediterranean area: effects of abiotic factors and farm practices. Pedobiologia 42:252–266Google Scholar
- Monteith GB, Storey RI (1981) The biology of Cephalodesmius, a genus of dung beetles which synthesizes “dung” from plant material (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). Mem Queensl Mus 20:253–277Google Scholar
- Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Friendly M, Kindt R, Legendre P, McGlinn D, Minchin PR, O’Hara RB, Simpson GL, Solymos P, Stevens MHM, Szoecs E, Wagner H (2017) vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 2.4-3. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan2012. Accessed 6 Nov 2017
- R Development Core Team (2017) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. ISBN 3-900051-07-0. http://www.R-project.org
- Verdú JR, Lobo MJ, Sánchez-Piñero F, Gallego B, Numa C, Lumaret JP, Cortez V, Ortiz A, Tonelli M, García-Teba Rey A, Rodriguez A, Durán J (2017) Ivermectin residues disrupt dung beetle diversity, soil properties and ecosystem functioning: an interdisciplinary field study. Sci Total Environ 618:219–228CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar