Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 1095–1114 | Cite as

Can large unmanaged trees replace ancient pollarded trees as habitats for lichenized fungi, non-lichenized fungi and bryophytes?

  • Björn NordénEmail author
  • John Bjarne Jordal
  • Marianne Evju
Original Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Forest and plantation biodiversity


Management of ancient trees constitutes a major dilemma in the conservation of associated biodiversity. While traditional methods are often advocated, such practices may incur considerable costs and their effects have rarely been scientifically evaluated. We compared the communities of lichenized fungi, non-lichenized fungi, and bryophytes among equal number of coarse previously pollarded and unmanaged trees (n = 340). On 400 Ulmus glabra and 280 Fraxinus excelsior trees at 62 sites in Norway, we found 209 lichenized fungi, 128 non-lichenized fungi, and 115 bryophytes. Pollarded trees were richer in microhabitats than unmanaged trees and had significantly higher richness of bryophytes (ash) and non-lichenized fungi (ash and elm), the latter increasing with the availability of dead wood, cavities and coarse bark structure in pollarded trees. Further, the average total number of red-listed species, and red-listed lichenized fungi separately, were significantly higher on pollarded versus unmanaged trees, with diversity related to trunk circumference, depth of bark fissures and number of cavities. Our results underline the importance of microhabitats associated with old trees, but we cannot establish with certainty the importance of pollarding per se. Since we did not find any negative effect of canopy cover for community diversity, we assume that old trees with rich epiphytic communities can develop without management intervention. The high share (37 out of 49) of red-listed species occurring on unmanaged trees, and the fact that 11 red-listed species were found exclusively on unmanaged trees, may further indicate that unmanaged trees can with time replace the ancient pollarded trees as habitats for rich cryptogamic communities.


Temperate deciduous forest Broad-leaf forest Wood-decaying fungi Bark-living fungi Ecological restoration 



We carried out the fieldwork as part of the project ‘Areas for red-listed species—survey and monitoring’ (ARKO), subproject ‘Old temperate deciduous trees’ funded by the Norwegian Environment Agency and performed at the Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA). BN thanks NINA for funding ‘free research time’ to write this paper. The Norwegian Biodiversity Information Centre supported part of the fieldwork through a grant (project ‘Pyrenomycetes (Sordariomycetes and similar fungi) in temperate deciduous forests of southern and western Norway to BN. We thank Håkon Holien (Steinkjer), Tor Tønsberg (Bergen), Per Magnus Jørgensen (Bergen), Einar Timdal (Oslo), Göran Thor (Uppsala), and Othmar Breuss (Wien) for confirmination of some specimens of lichenized fungi, and Hans H. Blom (Bergen); Kristian Hassel (Trondheim), Torbjørn Høitomt (Oslo), og Perry G. Larssen (Ålesund) for help with bryophytes. Thomas Læssøe (København), Jacques Fournier (Las Muros), Karen Hansen (Stockholm), Hans-Otto Baral (Tübingen) and Hanna Tuovila (Jyväskylä) confirmed or determined some specimens of non-lichenized ascomycetes, and Slava Spirin (Helsinki) and Karl Henrik Larsson (Oslo) assisted with basidiomycetes. Finally, we wish to thank the landowners who gave permissions for the surveys and in many cases assisted us with information during the fieldwork.’


This research was initiated by the first author and was performed as an independent project. The funding sources did not take any part in design or performance of this study, nor in the interpretation of results.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Norwegian Institute for Nature ResearchOsloNorway
  2. 2.SunndalsøraNorway

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