Advertisement

Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 26, Issue 12, pp 2979–2985 | Cite as

Wildlife markets in the presence of laundering: a comment

  • Brendan MoyleEmail author
Commentary
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Biodiversity legal instruments and regulations

Abstract

Bans on the trade in wildlife are advocated as means to reduce poaching and the illegal sales of wildlife products. One of the rationales for such bans is to prevent laundering. Laundering occurs when illegal wildlife products are passed off as legal, and sold in legal outlets. Nonetheless, wildlife trade has also reduced poaching for other species via competition from legal traders against illegal. These opposing laundering and competition effects are reconciled in a general trade model. This shows that there is a trade-off between laundering and competition, leading to a legal market whose size optimises these two effects. Where illegal sales are occurring largely outside the legal market, trade bans have limited effect. Bans are most effective when the scale of laundering dominates all other trade.

Keywords

CITES Laundering Poaching Wildlife trade 

References

  1. Actman J (2016) U.S. Adopts Near-Total Ivory Ban. National Geographic News. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/06/us-ivory-ban-regulations/. Accessed 1 Dec 2016
  2. Biggs D, Courchamp F, Martin R, Possingham HP (2013) Legal trade of Africa’s Rhino horns. Science 339(6123):1038–1039CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bulte EH, Damania R (2005) An economic assessment of wildlife farming and conservation. Conserv Biol 19(4):1222–1233Google Scholar
  4. CITES (2005) Verification mission related to the control of internal trade in ivory in China. SC53 Doc 20.1 Annex, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  5. Conrad K, Moyle B (2014) China’s domestic ivory market: conservation failure or partial conservation success? SULi News 9. http://www.iucn.org/about/union/commissions/sustainable_use_and_livelihoods_specialist_group/sulinews/issue_9/sn0_china_ivory/. Accessed 3 Oct 2014
  6. Fischer C (2004) The complex interactions of markets for endangered species products. J Environ Econ Manag 48:926–953. doi: 10.1016/j.jeem.2003.12.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gao Y, Clark S (2014) Elephant ivory trade in China: trends and drivers. Biol Conserv. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2014.09.020 Google Scholar
  8. Moyle B (2014) The raw and the carved: shipping costs and ivory smuggling. Ecol Econ 107:259–265. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Naylor RT (2005) The underworld of ivory. Crime Law Soc Change 42:261–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Riddle HS, Schulte BA, Desai AA, van der Meer L (2009) Elephants—a conservation overview. J Threat Taxa 2(1):653–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Russo C (2014) Can elephants survive a legal ivory trade? Debate is shifting against it. Retrieved from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/08/140829-elephants-trophy-hunting-poaching-ivory-ban-cities/
  12. Stiles D (2004) The ivory trade and elephant conservation. Environ Conserv 34(1):309–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. ‘t Sas-Rolfes M, Moyle B, Stiles D (2014) The complex policy issue of elephant ivory stock pile management. Pachyderm 55:62–77Google Scholar
  14. UNODC (2016) World Wildlife Crime Report: Trafficking in protected speciesGoogle Scholar
  15. van Kooten GC (2008) Protecting the African elephant: a dynamic bioeconomic model of ivory trade. Biol Conserv 141(8):2012–2022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Vigne L, Martin E (2011) Consumption of elephant and mammoth ivory increases in Southern China. Pachyderm 49:79–89Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Economics and FinanceMassey UniversityAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations