Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 26, Issue 12, pp 2765–2790 | Cite as

Building capacity in biodiversity monitoring at the global scale

  • Dirk S. SchmellerEmail author
  • Monika Böhm
  • Christos Arvanitidis
  • Shannon Barber-Meyer
  • Neil Brummitt
  • Mark Chandler
  • Eva Chatzinikolaou
  • Mark J. Costello
  • Hui Ding
  • Jaime García-Moreno
  • Mike Gill
  • Peter Haase
  • Miranda Jones
  • Romain Juillard
  • William E. Magnusson
  • Corinne S. Martin
  • Melodie McGeoch
  • Jean-Baptiste Mihoub
  • Nathalie Pettorelli
  • Vânia Proença
  • Cui Peng
  • Eugenie Regan
  • Ute Schmiedel
  • John P. Simaika
  • Lauren Weatherdon
  • Carly Waterman
  • Haigen Xu
  • Jayne Belnap
Review Paper


Human-driven global change is causing ongoing declines in biodiversity worldwide. In order to address these declines, decision-makers need accurate assessments of the status of and pressures on biodiversity. However, these are heavily constrained by incomplete and uneven spatial, temporal and taxonomic coverage. For instance, data from regions such as Europe and North America are currently used overwhelmingly for large-scale biodiversity assessments due to lesser availability of suitable data from other, more biodiversity-rich, regions. These data-poor regions are often those experiencing the strongest threats to biodiversity, however. There is therefore an urgent need to fill the existing gaps in global biodiversity monitoring. Here, we review current knowledge on best practice in capacity building for biodiversity monitoring and provide an overview of existing means to improve biodiversity data collection considering the different types of biodiversity monitoring data. Our review comprises insights from work in Africa, South America, Polar Regions and Europe; in government-funded, volunteer and citizen-based monitoring in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. The key steps to effectively building capacity in biodiversity monitoring are: identifying monitoring questions and aims; identifying the key components, functions, and processes to monitor; identifying the most suitable monitoring methods for these elements, carrying out monitoring activities; managing the resultant data; and interpreting monitoring data. Additionally, biodiversity monitoring should use multiple approaches including extensive and intensive monitoring through volunteers and professional scientists but also harnessing new technologies. Finally, we call on the scientific community to share biodiversity monitoring data, knowledge and tools to ensure the accessibility, interoperability, and reporting of biodiversity data at a global scale.


Biodiversity monitoring Paraecologists Citizen science Remote sensing New technologies 



GEO BON is an international initiative profiting from various sources of fundings.


  1. Anderson S (2002) Identifying important plant areas: a site selection manual for Europe, and a basis for developing guidelines for other regions of the world. A site selection manual for Europe, and a basis for developing guidelines for other regions of the world Plantlife International, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews C (2013) Zoos of the future [Design Zoos]. Eng Technol 8:68–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asner GP, Martin RE, Tupayachi R, Emerson R, Martinez P, Sinca F, Powell GV, Wright SJ, Lugo AE (2011) Taxonomy and remote sensing of leaf mass per area (LMA) in humid tropical forests. Ecol App 21:85–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barber-Meyer SM, Kooyman GL, Ponganis PJ (2007) Estimating the relative abundance of emperor penguins at inaccessible colonies using satellite imagery. Polar Biol 30:1565–1570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barber-Meyer S, Kooyman G, Ponganis P (2008) Trends in western Ross Sea emperor penguin chick abundances and their relationships to climate. Antarct Sci 20:3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Basset Y, Novotny V, Miller SE, Weiblen GD, Missa O, Stewart AJ (2004) Conservation and biological monitoring of tropical forests: the role of parataxonomists. J Appl Ecol 41:163–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bell S, Marzano M, Cent J, Kobierska H, Podjed D, Vandzinskaite D, Reinert H, Armaitiene A, Grodzińska-Jurczak M, Muršič R (2008) What counts? Volunteers and their organisations in the recording and monitoring of biodiversity. Biodivers Cons 17:3443–3454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benedetti-Cecchi L, Airoldi L, Fraschetti S, Terlizzi A (2003) Experimental methods for the assessment of anthropogenic impact on assemblages and coastal marine environments. Biol Mar Mediterr 11:457–479Google Scholar
  9. Böhm M, Collen B (2015) Toward equality of biodiversity knowledge through technology transfer. Conserv Biol 29:1290–1302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bohmann K, Evans A, Gilbert MTP, Carvalho GR, Creer S, Knapp M, Douglas WY, de Bruyn M (2014) Environmental DNA for wildlife biology and biodiversity monitoring. Trends Ecol Evol 29:358–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bourgeois W, Romain A-C, Nicolas J, Stuetz RM (2003) The use of sensor arrays for environmental monitoring: interests and limitations. J Environ Monit 5:852–860. doi: 10.1039/B307905H PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Butchart SH, Walpole M, Collen B, van Strien A, Scharlemann JrP, Almond RE, Baillie JE, Bomhard B, Brown C, Bruno J (2010) Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines. Science 328:1164–1168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cardoso P, Erwin TL, Borges PA, New TR (2011) The seven impediments in invertebrate conservation and how to overcome them. Biol Conserv 144:2647–2655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Casanovas P, Lynch HJ, Fagan WF (2013) Multi-scale patterns of moss and lichen richness on the Antarctic Peninsula. Ecography 36:209–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chandler M, See L, Copas K, Bonde AMZ, López BC, Danielsen F, Legind JK, Masinde S, Miller- Rushing AJ, Newman G, Rosemartin A, Turak E (2016) Contribution of citizen science towards international biodiversity monitoring. Biol Conserv. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2016.09.004
  16. Collen BEN, Loh J, Whitmee S, McRae L, Amin R, Baillie JEM (2009) Monitoring change in vertebrate abundance: the living planet index. Conserv Biol 23:317–327. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01117.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Costa FRC, Magnusson WE (2010) The need for large-scale, integrated studies of biodiversity—the experience of the Program for Biodiversity Research in Brazilian Amazonia. Nat Conserv 8:3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Costello MJ, Coll M, Danovaro R, Halpin P, Ojaveer H, Miloslavich P (2010) A census of marine biodiversity knowledge, resources, and future challenges. PLoS ONE 5:e12110PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Costello MJ, Appeltans W, Bailly N, Berendsohn WG, de Jong Y, Edwards M, Froese R, Huettmann F, Los W, Mees J, Segers H, Bisby FA (2013a) Strategies for the sustainability of online open-access biodiversity databases. Biol Conserv 173:155–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Costello MJ, Bouchet P, Boxshall G, Fauchald K, Gordon D, Hoeksema BW, Poore GC, van Soest RW, Stöhr S, Walter TC (2013b) Global coordination and standardisation in marine biodiversity through the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) and related databases. PLoS ONE 8:e51629PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Costello MJ, Archambault P, Chavanich S, Miloslavich P, Paterson DM, Phang S-M, Sousa Pinto I, Pierrot-Bults A, Song S, Soto EH(2015) Organizing, supporting and linking the world marine biodiversity research community. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 95:431–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Costello M, Basher Z, McLeod L, Assad I, Claus S, Vandepitte L, Yasuhara M, Gislason H, Edwards M, Appeltans W, Enevoldsen H, Edgar G, Miloslavich P, de Monte S, Sousa Pinto I, Obura D, Bates A (2017) Methods for the study of marine biodiversity. In: Scholes RJ, Walters S (eds) GEO Handbook on biodiversity observation networks. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  23. Cui P, Wu Y, Ding H, Wu J, Cao M, Chen L, Chen B, Lu X, Xu H (2014) Status of wintering waterbirds at selected locations in China. Waterbirds 37:402–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Danielsen F, Mendoza MM, Alviola P, Balete DS, Enghoff M, Poulsen MK, Jensen AE (2003) Biodiversity monitoring in developing countries: what are we trying to achieve? Oryx 37:407–409Google Scholar
  25. Danielsen F, Burgess ND, Balmford A (2005) Monitoring matters: examining the potential of locally-based approaches. Biodivers Conserv 14:2507–2542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Danielsen F, Burgess ND, Balmford A, Fjeldsa J, Andrianandrasana HT, Becker CD, Bennun L, Brashares JS, Christiansen S, Donald PF, Eguino S, Enghoff M, Funder M, Gray M, Hubertz H, Jones JPG, Oetting I, Poulsen MK, von Rijsoort J, Stuart-Hill G, Topp-Jorgensen E, Townsend WR, Uychiaoco AJ, Whitten T, Yonten D (2006) Monitoring matters: evaluating locally-based biodiversity monitoring in developing countries. Oryx 40:14–15Google Scholar
  27. Darwall WR, Holland RA, Smith KG, Allen D, Brooks EG, Katarya V, Pollock CM, Shi Y, Clausnitzer V, Cumberlidge N (2011) Implications of bias in conservation research and investment for freshwater species. Conserv Lett 4:474–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Degraer S, Moerkerke G, Rabaut M, Van Hoey G, Du Four I, Vincx M, Henriet J-P, Van Lancker V (2008) Very-high resolution side-scan sonar mapping of biogenic reefs of the tube-worm Lanice conchilega. Remote Sens Environ 112:3323–3328. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2007.12.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Deiner K, Walser J-C, Mächler E, Altermatt F (2015) Choice of capture and extraction methods affect detection of freshwater biodiversity from environmental DNA. Biol Conserv 183:53–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Díaz S, Demissew S, Carabias J, Joly C, Lonsdale M, Ash N, Larigauderie A, Adhikari JR, Arico S, Baldi A (2015) The IPBES conceptual framework—connecting nature and people. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 14:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dickens CW, Graham P (2002) The South African Scoring System (SASS) version 5 rapid bioassessment method for rivers. Afr J Aquat Sci 27:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dickinson TA, White J, Kauer JS, Walt DR (1998) Current trends in ‘artificial-nose’ technology. Trends Biotechnol 16:250–258. doi: 10.1016/S0167-7799(98)01185-8 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Duffy JE, Amaral-Zettler LA, Fautin DG, Paulay G, Rynearson TA, Sosik HM, Stachowicz JJ (2013) Envisioning a marine biodiversity observation network. BioScience 63:350–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Duro DC, Coops NC, Wulder MA, Han T (2007) Development of a large area biodiversity monitoring system driven by remote sensing. Prog Phys Geogr 31:235–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Egloff W, Agosti D, Patterson D, Hoffmann A, Mietchen D, Kishor P, Penev L (2016) Data policy recommendations for biodiversity data. EU BON Project Report. Res Ideas Outcomes 2:e8458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Eken G, Bennun L, Brooks TM, Darwall W, Fishpool LD, Foster M, Knox D, Langhammer P, Matiku P, Radford E (2004) Key biodiversity areas as site conservation targets. Bioscience 54:1110–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Elbrecht V, Leese F (2015) Testing primer bias and biomass-sequence relationships in metabarcoding: implications for monitoring of freshwater invertebrate communities. In: Genome, 2015, vol 5. Canadian Science Publishing, NRC Research Press, Ottawa, p 215Google Scholar
  38. Eldridge AC, Casey M, Moscoso P, Peck M (2015) A new direction for Soundscape Ecology? Toward the extraction and evaluation of ecologically-meaningful soundscape objects using sparse coding methods. PeerJ PrePrintsGoogle Scholar
  39. Engel SR, Voshell JR Jr (2002) Volunteer biological monitoring: can it accurately assess the ecological condition of streams? Am Entomol 48:164–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Erbe C, McCauley R, Gavrilov A (2016) Characterizing marine soundscapes. In: The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Springer, pp 265–271Google Scholar
  41. Foote AD, Thomsen PF, Sveegaard S, Wahlberg M, Kielgast J, Kyhn LA, Salling AB, Galatius A, Orlando L, Gilbert MTP (2012) Investigating the potential use of environmental DNA (eDNA) for genetic monitoring of marine mammals. PLoS ONE 7:e41781PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fretwell PT, Trathan PN (2009) Penguins from space: faecal stains reveal the location of emperor penguin colonies. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 18:543–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fretwell PT, LaRue MA, Morin P, Kooyman GL, Wienecke B, Ratcliffe N, Fox AJ, Fleming AH, Porter C, Trathan PN (2012) An emperor penguin population estimate: the first global, synoptic survey of a species from space. PLoS ONE 7:e33751PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Friberg N, Sandin L, Furse MT, Larsen SE, Clarke RT, Haase P (2006) Comparison of macroinvertebrate sampling methods in Europe. Hydrobiologia 566:365–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Geijzendorffer IR, Regan E, Pereira HM, Brotons L, Brummitt N, Gavish Y, Haase P, Martin CS, Mihoub J-B, Secades C, Schmeller DS, Stoll S, Wetzel FT, Walters M (2016) Bridging the gap between biodiversity data and policy reporting needs: an essential biodiversity variables perspective. J Appl Ecol 53:1341–1350. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-27288-7_4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gill M, Crane K, Hindrum R, Arneberg P, Bysveen I, Denisenko N, Gofman V, Grant-Friedman A, Gudmundsson G, Hopcroft R (2011) Arctic marine biodiversity monitoring planGoogle Scholar
  47. Gollan JR, Smith HM, Bulbert M, Donnelly AP, Wilkie L (2010) Using spider web types as a substitute for assessing web-building spider biodiversity and the success of habitat restoration. Biodivers Conserv 19:3141–3155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Haase P, Frenzel M, Klotz S, Musche M, Stoll S (2016) The long-term ecological research (LTER) network: relevance, current status, future perspective and examples from marine, freshwater and terrestrial long-term observation. Ecol Ind 65:1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hansen MC, Potapov PV, Moore R, Hancher M, Turubanova S, Tyukavina A, Thau D, Stehman S, Goetz S, Loveland T (2013) High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change. Science 342:850–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hardisty A, Roberts D (2013) A decadal view of biodiversity informatics: challenges and priorities. BMC Ecol 13:16PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. He KS, Rocchini D, Neteler M, Nagendra H (2011) Benefits of hyperspectral remote sensing for tracking plant invasions. Divers Distrib 17:381–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. He KS, Bradley BA, Cord AF, Rocchini D, Tuanmu MN, Schmidtlein S, Turner W, Wegmann M, Pettorelli N (2015) Will remote sensing shape the next generation of species distribution models? Remote Sens Ecol Conserv 1:4–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Henle K, Bell S, Brotons L, Clobert J, Evans D, Goerg C, Grodzinska-Jurcak M, Gruber B, Haila Y, Henry P-Y, Huth A, Julliard R, Keil P, Kleyer M, Kotze J, Kunin W, Lengyel S, Lin Y-P, Loyau A, Luck G, Magnuson W, Margules C, Matsinos Y, May P, Sousa-Pinto I, Possingham H, Potts S, Ring I, Pryke J, Samways M, Saunders D, Schmeller D, Simila J, Sommer S, Steffan-Dewenter I, Stoev P, Sykes M, Tóthmérész B, Yam R, Tzanopoulos J, Penev L (2012) Nature conservation—a new dimension in Open Access publishing bridging science and application. Nat Conserv 1:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Henle K, Bauch B, Auliya M, Külvik M, Pe’er G, Schmeller DS, Framstad E (2013) Priorities for biodiversity monitoring in Europe: a review of supranational policies and a novel scheme for integrative prioritization. Ecol Ind 33:5–18. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.03.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Heslenfeld P, Enserink E (2012) OSPAR ecological quality objectives: the utility of health indicators for the North Sea. ICES J Mar Sci 65:1392–1397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hoffmann A, Penner J, Vohland K, Cramer W, Doubleday R, Henle K, Köljalg U, Kühn I, Kunin WE, Negro JJ, Penev L, Rodríguez C, Saarenmaa H, Schmeller DS, Stoev P, Sutherland WJ, Tuama ÉÓ, Häuser C (2014) Improved access to integrated biodiversity data for science, practice, and policy—the European Biodiversity Observation Network (EU BON). Nat Conserv 6:49–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Janzen DH, Hallwachs W (2011) Joining inventory by parataxonomists with DNA barcoding of a large complex tropical conserved wildland in northwestern Costa Rica. PLoS ONE 6:e18123PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jürgens N, Hoffman MT, Schmiedel U (2010) Biodiversity in Southern Africa: patterns at local scale: the BIOTA observatories. Klaus Hess, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  59. Jürgens N, Schmiedel U, Haarmeyer DH, Dengler J, Finckh M, Goetze D, Gröngröft A, Hahn K, Koulibaly A, Luther-Mosebach J (2012) The BIOTA Biodiversity Observatories in Africa—a standardized framework for large-scale environmental monitoring. Environ Monit Assess 184:655–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kachelriess D, Wegmann M, Gollock M, Pettorelli N (2014) The application of remote sensing for marine protected area management. Ecol Ind 36:169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Korn H, Schliep R, Epple C (2004) In: Report of the International Workshop “Capacity-Building for Biodiversity in Central and Eastern Europe”, BonnGoogle Scholar
  62. Koureas D, Hardisty A, Vos R, Agosti D, Arvanitidis C, Bogatencov P, Buttigieg PL, de Jong Y, Horvath F, Gkoutos G (2016) Unifying European Biodiversity Informatics (BioUnify). Res Ideas Outcomes 2:e7787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lammers MO, Brainard RE, Au WW, Mooney TA, Wong KB (2008) An ecological acoustic recorder (EAR) for long-term monitoring of biological and anthropogenic sounds on coral reefs and other marine habitats. J Acoust Soc Am 123:1720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. LaRue MA, Rotella JJ, Garrott RA, Siniff DB, Ainley DG, Stauffer GE, Porter CC, Morin PJ (2011) Satellite imagery can be used to detect variation in abundance of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in Erebus Bay. Antarct Polar Biol 34:1727–1737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lenat DR, Resh VH (2011) Taxonomy and stream ecology—the benefits of genus-and species-level identificationsGoogle Scholar
  66. Liess M, von der Ohe PC (2005) Analyzing effects of pesticides on invertebrate communities in streams. Environ Toxicol Chem 24:954–965. doi: 10.1897/03-652.1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lin Y-P, Deng D-P, Lin W-C, Lemmens R, Crossman ND, Henle K, Schmeller DS (2015) Uncertainty analysis of crowd-sourced and professionally collected field data used in species distribution models of Taiwanese Moths. Biol Conserv 181:102–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lodge DM, Turner CR, Jerde CL, Barnes MA, Chadderton L, Egan SP, Feder JL, Mahon AR, Pfrender ME (2012) Conservation in a cup of water: estimating biodiversity and population abundance from environmental DNA. Mol Ecol 21:2555–2558. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05600.x PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Loh J, Green RE, Ricketts T, Lamoreux J, Jenkins M, Kapos V, Randers J (2005) The Living Planet Index: using species population time series to track trends in biodiversity. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 360:289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lotze HK, Worm B (2009) Historical baselines for large marine animals. Trends Ecol Evol 24:254–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lucieer A, Turner D, King DH, Robinson SA (2014) Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to capture micro-topography of Antarctic moss beds. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 27:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lynch H, LaRue M (2014) First global census of the Adélie Penguin. Auk 131:457–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mace GM, Baillie JE (2007) The 2010 biodiversity indicators: challenges for science and policy. Conserv Biol 21:1406–1413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Magnusson WE (2014) Uncertainty and the design of in situ biodiversity-monitoring programs. Nat Conserv 8:77–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Magnusson WE, Lima AP, Luizão R, Luizão F, Costa FR, de Castilho CV, Kinupp V (2005) RAPELD: a modification of the Gentry method for biodiversity surveys in long-term ecological research sites. Biota Neotrop 5:19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Magnusson W, Braga-Neto R, Pezzini F, Baccaro F, Bergallo H, Penha J, Rodrigues DdJ, Verdade LM, Lima A, Albernaz AL, Hero J-M, Lawson B, Castilho C, Drucker D, Franklin E, Medonca F, Costa F, Galdino G, Castley G, Zuanon J, Vale Jd, Santos JLCd, Luizao R, Cintra R, Barbosa RI, Lisboa A, Koblitz R, Cunha CNd, Pontes ARM (2013) Biodiversity and integrated environmental monitoring. Attema, Sao PauloGoogle Scholar
  77. Marsh DM, Trenham PC (2008) Current trends in plant and animal population monitoring. Conserv Biol 22:647–655. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00927.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Martellini A, Payment P, Villemur R (2005) Use of eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA to differentiate human, bovine, porcine and ovine sources in fecally contaminated surface water. Water Res 39:541–548. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2004.11.012 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Martin LJ, Blossey B, Ellis E (2012) Mapping where ecologists work: biases in the global distribution of terrestrial ecological observations. Front Ecol Environ 10:195–201. doi: 10.1890/110154 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Martinez-Cedeira J, Covelo P, Barreiro A, Torres J, Conde P, Otero P, Pierce G, Santos M (2003) Avistamientos de cetáceos desde barcos de pesca en aguas de Galicia Galemys: Boletín SECEM 103–113Google Scholar
  81. McRae L, Collen B, Deinet S, Hill P, Loh J, Baillie J, Price V (2012) The living planet index. WWF International, GlandGoogle Scholar
  82. McRae L, Deinet S, Freeman R (2016) The diversity weighted Living Planet Index: controlling for taxonomic bias in a global biodiversity index PeerJ Preprints 4:e2214v2211Google Scholar
  83. McWilliam J (2016) Spatial patterns of inshore marine soundscapes. In: The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II. Springer, pp 697–703Google Scholar
  84. Merchant ND, Pirotta E, Barton TR, Thompson PM (2016) Soundscape and noise exposure monitoring in a marine protected area using shipping data and time-lapse footage. In: Popper A, Hawkins A (eds) The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Springer, New York, pp 705–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mora C, Tittensor DP, Myers RA (2008) The completeness of taxonomic inventories for describing the global diversity and distribution of marine fishes. Proc R Soc Lond B 275:149–155. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2007.1315 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nedelec SL, Simpson SD, Holderied M, Radford AN, Lecellier G, Radford C, Lecchini D (2015) Soundscapes and living communities in coral reefs: temporal and spatial variation. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 525:125–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Newbery KB, Southwell C (2009) An automated camera system for remote monitoring in polar environments. Cold Reg Sci Technol 55:47–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nichols J (2010) The wildlife picture index, monitoring and conservation. Anim Conserv 13:344–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Paget E, Lebrun M, Freyssinet G, Simonet P (1998) The fate of recombinant plant DNA in soil. Eur J Soil Biol 34:81–88. doi: 10.1016/s1164-5563(99)90005-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Penone C, Le Viol I, Pellissier V, Julien J-F, Bas Y, Kerbiriou C (2013) Use of large-scale acoustic monitoring to assess anthropogenic pressures on orthoptera communities. Conserv Biol 27:979–987. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12083 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pereira HM, Belnap J, Brummitt N, Collen B, Ding H, Gonzalez-Espinos M, Gregory RD, Honrado J, Jongman RH, Julliard R, McRae L, Proenca V, Rodrigues P, Opige M, Rodrigue JP, Schmeller DS, Swaay Cv, Vieira C (2010) Global biodiversity monitoring. Front Ecol Environ 8:459–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pereira HM, Ferrier S, Walters M, Geller G, Jongman R, Scholes R, Bruford M, Brummitt N, Butchart S, Cardoso A (2013) Essential biodiversity variables. Science 339:277–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pereira HM, Belnap J, Böhm M, Brummitt N, Garcia-Moreno J, Gregory R, Martin L, Peng C, Proença V, Schmeller DS, van Swaay C (2017) Monitoring essential biodiversity variables at the species level. In: Walters M, Scholes RJ (eds) The GEO handbook on biodiversity observation networks. Springer, Cham, pp 79–105. doi:  10.1007/978-3-319-27288-7_4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pettorelli N, Ryan S, Mueller T, Bunnefeld N, Ba Jedrzejewska, Lima M, Kausrud K (2011) The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): unforeseen successes in animal ecology. Climate Res 46:15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pettorelli N, Chauvenet ANL, Duffy JP, Cornforth WA, Ae Meillere, Baillie JE (2012) Tracking the effect of climate change on ecosystem functioning using protected areas: africa as a case study. Ecol Ind 20:269–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Pettorelli N, Laurance WF, O’Brien TG, Wegmann M, Nagendra H, Turner W (2014a) Satellite remote sensing for applied ecologists: opportunities and challenges. J Appl Ecol 51:839–848. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12261 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pettorelli N, Safi K, Turner W (2014b) Satellite remote sensing, biodiversity research and conservation of the future. Philos Trans R Soc B 369:20130190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pettorelli N, Wegmann M, Skidmore A, Mücher S, Dawson TP, Fernandez M, Lucas R, Schaepman ME, Wang T, O’Connor B, Jongman RHG, Kempeneers P, Sonnenschein R, Leidner AK, Böhm M, He KS, Nagendra H, Dubois G, Fatoyinbo T, Hansen MC, Paganini M, de Klerk HM, Asner G, Kerr J, Estes AB, Schmeller DS, Heiden U, Rocchini D, Pereira HM, Turak E, Fernandez N, Lausch A, Cho MA, Domingo Alcaraz-Segura, McGeoch MA, Turner W, Mueller A, St-Louis V, Penner J, Geller GN (2016) Framing the concept of satellite remote sensing essential biodiversity variables: challenges and future directions. Remote Sens Ecol Conserv 2:122–131. doi:  10.1002/rse2.15 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Phinn S, Roelfsema C, Dekker A, Brando V, Anstee J (2008) Mapping seagrass species, cover and biomass in shallow waters: an assessment of satellite multi-spectral and airborne hyper-spectral imaging systems in Moreton Bay (Australia). Remote Sens Environ 112:3413–3425. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2007.09.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pijanowski B, Farina A (2011) Introduction to the special issue on soundscape ecology. Landscape Ecol 26:1209–1211. doi: 10.1007/s10980-011-9655-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pijanowski BC, Villanueva-Rivera LJ, Dumyahn SL, Farina A, Krause BL, Napoletano BM, Gage SH, Pieretti N (2011) Soundscape ecology: the science of sound in the landscape. Bioscience 61:203–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Popescu VD, de Valpine P, Sweitzer RA (2014) Testing the consistency of wildlife data types before combining them: the case of camera traps and telemetry. Ecol Evol 4:933–943. doi: 10.1002/ece3.997 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Proença V, Martin LJ, Pereira HM, Fernandez M, McRae L, Belnap J, Böhm M, Brummitt N, García-Moreno J, Gregory RD, Honrado JP, Jürgens N, Opige M, Peng C, Schmeller DS, Tiago P, van Swaay CAM (in press) Global biodiversity monitoring: from data sources to essential biodiversity variables. Biol Conserv. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2016.07.014
  104. Raiteri R, Grattarola M, Berger R (2002) Micromechanics senses biomolecules. Mater Today 5:22–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rich LN, Kelly MJ, Sollmann R, Noss AJ, Maffei L, Arispe RL, Paviolo A, De Angelo CD, Di Blanco YE, Di Bitetti MS (2014) Comparing capture-recapture, mark-resight, and spatial mark-resight models for estimating puma densities via camera traps. J Mammal 95:382–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rocchini D, Boyd DS, Féret J-B, Foody GM, He KS, Lausch A, Nagendra H, Wegmann M, Pettorelli N (2016) Satellite remote sensing to monitor species diversity: potential and pitfalls. Remote Sens Ecol Conserv 2:25–36. doi: 10.1002/rse2.9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rowcliffe JM, Field J, Turvey ST, Carbone C (2008) Estimating animal density using camera traps without the need for individual recognition. J Appl Ecol 45:1228–1236. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01473.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rowcliffe JM, Carbone C, Jansen PA, Kays R, Kranstauber B (2011) Quantifying the sensitivity of camera traps: an adapted distance sampling approach. Methods Ecol Evol 2:464–476. doi: 10.1111/j.2041-210X.2011.00094.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rowcliffe JM, Carbone C, Kays R, Kranstauber B, Jansen PA (2012) Bias in estimating animal travel distance: the effect of sampling frequency. Methods Ecol Evol 3:653–662. doi: 10.1111/j.2041-210X.2012.00197.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sánchez-Gendriz I, Padovese L (2016) Underwater soundscape of marine protected areas in the south Brazilian coast. Mar Pollut Bull 105:65–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Schäfer RB, von der Ohe PC, Rasmussen J, Kefford BJ, Beketov MA, Schulz R, Liess M (2012) Thresholds for the effects of pesticides on invertebrate communities and leaf breakdown in stream ecosystems. Environ Sci Technol 46:5134–5142. doi: 10.1021/es2039882 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Schietti J, Emilio T, Rennó CD, Drucker DP, Costa FvR, Nogueira A, Baccaro FB, Figueiredo F, Castilho CV, Kinupp V (2014) Vertical distance from drainage drives floristic composition changes in an Amazonian rainforest. Plant Ecol Divers 7:241–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schmeller DS (2008) European species and habitat monitoring: where are we now? Biodivers Conserv 17:3321–3326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Schmeller DS, Bridgewater P (2016) The Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES): progress and next steps. Biodivers Conserv 25:801–805. doi: 10.1007/s10531-016-1095-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Schmeller DS, Gruber B, Bauch B, Lanno K, Budrys E, Babij V, Juskaitis R, Sammul M, Varga Z, Henle K(2008a) Determination of national conservation responsibilities for species conservation in regions with multiple political jurisdictions. Biodivers Conserv 17:3607–3622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schmeller DS, Gruber B, Budrys E, Framsted E, Lengyel S, Henle K (2008b) National responsibilities in European species conservation: a methodological review. Conserv Biol 22:593–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Schmeller DS, Henry P-Y, Julliard R, Clobert J, Gruber B, Dziock F, Lengyel S, Nowicki P, Déri E, Budrys E, Kull T, Tali K, Bauch B, Settele J, van Swaay C, Kobler A, Babij V, Papastergiadou E, Henle K (2009) Advantages of volunteer-based biodiversity monitoring in Europe. Conserv Biol 23:307–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Schmeller DS, Henle K, Loyau A, Besnard A, Henry P-Y (2012a) Bird-monitoring in Europe—a first overview of practices, motivations and aims. Nat Conserv 2:41–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Schmeller DS, Maier A, Bauch B, Evans D, Henle K (2012b) National responsibilities for conserving habitats—a freely scalable method. Nat Conserv 3:21–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Schmeller DS, Evans D, Lin YP, Henle K (2014) The national responsibility approach to setting conservation priorities—recommendations for its use. J Nat Conserv 22:349–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Schmeller DS, Juillard R, Bellingham PJ, Böhm M, Brummitt N, Chiarucci A, Couvet D, Elmendorf S, Forsyth DM, Garcia-Moreno J, Gregory RD, Magnusson WE, Martin LJ, McGeoch MA, Mihoub J-B, Pereira HM, Proença V, Van Swaay C, Yahara T, Belnap J (2015) Towards a global terrestrial species monitoring program. J Nat Conserv 25:51–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Schmeller DS, Arvanitidis C, Böhm M, Brummitt N, Chatzinikolaou E, Costello MJ, Ding H, Gill MJ, Haase P, Julliard R, García-Moreno J, Pettorelli N, Peng C, Riginos C, Schmiedel U, Simaika JP, Waterman C, Wu J, Xu H, Belnap J (2017) Case studies of capacity building for biodiversity monitoring. In: Walters M, Scholes RJ (eds) The GEO handbook on biodiversity observation networks. Springer, Cham, pp 309–326. doi:  10.1007/978-3-319-27288-7_13 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Schmeller DS, Mihoub JB, Bowser A, Arvanitidis C, Costello MJ, Fernandez MJ, Geller GN, Hobern D, Kissling WD, Regan EC, Saarenmaa H, Turak E, Isaac NJB (in press). An operational definition of Essential Biodiversity Variables Biodiversity and ConservationGoogle Scholar
  124. Schmiedel U, Dengler J, Luther-Mosebach J, Gröngröft A, Muche G, Petersen A, Strohbach B, Jürgens N (2010) Patterns and dynamics of vascular plant diversity along the BIOTA transects in Southern Africa. Biodivers S Afr 2:118–135Google Scholar
  125. Schmiedel U, Araya Y, Bortolotto MI, Boeckenhoff L, Hallwachs W, Janzen D, Kolipaka SS, Novotny V, Palm M, Parfondry M (2016) Contributions of paraecologists and parataxonomists to research, conservation, and social development. Conserv Biol 30:506–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Scott SM, James D, Ali Z (2006) Data analysis for electronic nose systems. Microchim Acta 156:183–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Secades C, O’Connor B, Brown C, Walpole M (2014) Earth observation for biodiversity monitoring: a review of current approaches and future opportunities for tracking progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Technical Series No. 72. Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  128. Sheil D, Mugerwa B, Fegraus EH (2013) African golden cats, citizen science, and serendipity: tapping the camera trap revolution. S Afr J Wildl Res 43:74–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Simpson R, Page KR, De Roure D (2014) Zooniverse: observing the world’s largest citizen science platform. In: Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on World Wide Web, 2014. ACM, pp 1049–1054Google Scholar
  130. Smith JW, Pijanowski BC (2014) Human and policy dimensions of soundscape ecology. Global Environ Change 28:63–74 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Stapleton S, LaRue M, Lecomte N, Atkinson S, Garshelis D, Porter C, Atwood T (2014) Polar bears from space: assessing satellite imagery as a tool to track Arctic wildlife. PLoS ONE 9:e101513PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Stepanian PM, Chilson PB, Kelly JF (2014) An introduction to radar image processing in ecology. Methods Ecol Evol 5:730–738. doi: 10.1111/2041-210x.12214 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Tape KD, Gustine DD (2014) Capturing migration phenology of terrestrial wildlife using camera traps. Bioscience. doi: 10.1093/biosci/bit018 Google Scholar
  134. Thomsen PF, Kielgast J, Iversen LL, Moller PR, Rasmussen M, Willerslev E (2012) Detection of a diverse marine fish fauna using environmental DNA from seawater samples. PLoS ONE 7:e41732PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Tittensor DP, Walpole M, Hill SLL, Boyce DG, Britten GL, Burgess ND, Butchart SHM, Leadley PW, Regan EC, Alkamade R, Baumung R, Bellard C, Bouwman L, Bowles-Newark NJ, Chenery AM, Cheung WWL, Christensen VH, Cooper D, Crowther AR, Dixon MJR, Galli A, Gaveau V, Gregory RD, Gutierrez NL, Hirsch T, Hoft R, Januchowski-Hartley SR, Karmann M, Krug CB, Leverington FJ, Loh J, Lojenga RK, Malsch K, Marques A, Morgan DHW, Newbold T, Noonan-Mooney K, Pagad SN, Parks BC, Pereira HM, Robertson T, Rondinini C, Santini L, Schindler R, Sumaila UR, van Kolck J, Visconti P, Yimin Y (2014) A mid-term analysis of progress towards international biodiversity targets. Science 14:241–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Tonkin JD, Arimoro FO, Haase P (2016) Exploring stream communities in a tropical biodiversity hotspot: biodiversity, regional occupancy, niche characteristics and environmental correlates. Biodivers Conserv 25:975–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Turner W (2013) Satellites: make data freely accessible. Nature 498:37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Turner W, Rondinini C, Pettorelli N, Mora B, Leidner AK, Szantoi Z, Buchanan G, Dech S, Dwyer J, Herold M (2015) Free and open-access satellite data are key to biodiversity conservation. Biol Conserv 182:173–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. van Donk E, Peacor S, Grosser K, De Senerpont Domis LN, Lürling M (2016) Pharmaceuticals may disrupt natural chemical information flows and species interactions in aquatic systems: ideas and perspectives on a hidden global change. In: de Voogt P (ed) Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology, vol 238. Springer, Cham, pp 91–105. doi: 10.1007/398_2015_5002 Google Scholar
  140. van Swaay C, Warren M (2003) Prime butterfly areas in Europe: priority sites for conservation. Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  141. van Swaay CAM, Nowicki P, Settele J, van Strien AJ (2008) Butterfly Monitoring in Europe—a blueprint for international monitoring schemes? Biodivers Conserv 17:3455–3469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Vandzinskaite D, Kobierska H, Schmeller DS, Grodzińska-Jurczak M (2010) Cultural diversity issues in biodiversity monitoring—cases of Lithuania, Poland and Denmark. Diversity 2:1130–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Vohland K, Nadim T (2015) Ensuring the success of IPBES: between interface, market place and parliament. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 370:20140012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wabnitz CC, Andréfouët S, Torres-Pulliza D, Müller-Karger FE, Kramer PA (2008) Regional-scale seagrass habitat mapping in the Wider Caribbean region using Landsat sensors: applications to conservation and ecology. Remote Sens Environ 112:3455–3467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wiggins SM, Hildebrand JA (2007) High-frequency Acoustic Recording Package (HARP) for broad-band, long-term marine mammal monitoring. In: Symposium on underwater technology and workshop on scientific use of submarine cables and related technologies, 2007. IEEE, pp 551–557Google Scholar
  146. Yahara T, Ma K, Darnaedi D, Miyashita T, Takenaka A, Tachida H, Nakashizuka T, Kim E-S, Takamura N, Nakano S (2014) Developing a regional network of biodiversity observation in the Asia-Pacific Region: achievements and challenges of AP BON. In: Integrative Observations and Assessments. Springer, pp 3–28Google Scholar
  147. Yoccoz NG, Nichols JD, Boulinier T (2001) Monitoring of biological diversity in space and time. Trends Ecol Evol 16:446–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Yoccoz NG, Nichols JD, Boulinier T (2003) Monitoring of biological diversity—a response to Danielsen. Oryx 37:410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Zampoukas N, Piha H, Bigagli E, Hoepffner N, Hanke G, Cardoso AC (2013) Marine monitoring in the European Union: how to fulfill the requirements for the marine strategy framework directive in an efficient and integrated way. Mar Policy 39:349–351. doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2012.12.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dirk S. Schmeller
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Monika Böhm
    • 3
  • Christos Arvanitidis
    • 4
  • Shannon Barber-Meyer
    • 5
    • 6
  • Neil Brummitt
    • 7
  • Mark Chandler
    • 8
  • Eva Chatzinikolaou
    • 3
  • Mark J. Costello
    • 9
  • Hui Ding
    • 10
  • Jaime García-Moreno
    • 11
  • Mike Gill
    • 12
  • Peter Haase
    • 13
    • 14
  • Miranda Jones
    • 15
    • 16
  • Romain Juillard
    • 17
  • William E. Magnusson
    • 18
  • Corinne S. Martin
    • 15
  • Melodie McGeoch
    • 19
  • Jean-Baptiste Mihoub
    • 1
  • Nathalie Pettorelli
    • 3
  • Vânia Proença
    • 20
  • Cui Peng
    • 10
  • Eugenie Regan
    • 21
  • Ute Schmiedel
    • 22
  • John P. Simaika
    • 13
  • Lauren Weatherdon
    • 15
  • Carly Waterman
    • 3
  • Haigen Xu
    • 10
  • Jayne Belnap
    • 23
  1. 1.Department of Conservation BiologyHelmholtz Center for Environmental Research – UFZLeipzigGermany
  2. 2.ECOLABUniversité de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPSToulouseFrance
  3. 3.Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of LondonLondonUK
  4. 4.Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR)Institute of Marine Biology, Biotechnology and AquacultureHeraklionGreece
  5. 5.Scripps Institute of OceanographyUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA
  6. 6.US Geological SurveyNorthern Prairie Wildlife Research CenterJamestownUSA
  7. 7.Natural History MuseumLondonUnited Kingdom
  8. 8.Earthwatch InstituteBostonUSA
  9. 9.Institute of Marine ScienceUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  10. 10.Nanjing Institute of Environmental SciencesMinistry of Environmental ProtectionNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  11. 11.ESiLiArnhemNetherlands
  12. 12.Canadian High Arctic Research StationAboriginal Affairs and Northern Development CanadaHullCanada
  13. 13.Department of River Ecology and ConservationSenckenberg Research Institute and Natural History MuseumGelnhausenGermany
  14. 14.Faculty of BiologyUniversity of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany
  15. 15.United Nations Environment World Conservation Monitoring CentreCambridgeUK
  16. 16.Changing Ocean Research Unit and Nereus Program, Fisheries CentreUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  17. 17.Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Département Ecologie et Gestion de la BiodiversitéUMR 7204 MNHN-CNRS Centre d’Ecologie et des Sciences de la ConservationParisFrance
  18. 18.Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da AmazôniaManausBrazil
  19. 19.School of Biological SciencesMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  20. 20.MARETEC, Instituto Superior TécnicoUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  21. 21.The Biodiversity ConsultancyCambridgeUK
  22. 22.University of Hamburg, Biocentre Klein Flottbek and Botanical GardenHamburgGermany
  23. 23.U.S. Geological SurveySouthwest Biological Science CenterMoabUSA

Personalised recommendations