Advertisement

Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 26, Issue 10, pp 2347–2360 | Cite as

Ready for climate change? Geographic trends in the protection status of critical sites for Western Palearctic ducks

  • Matthieu GuillemainEmail author
  • Richard Hearn
Original Paper

Abstract

The geographic range of many migratory bird populations is shifting in response to climate change. Protected areas play a major role in the conservation of many such species, yet these reserves are static so a geographic mismatch between the habitat needs of the birds and the network of protected areas may gradually appear. Ducks in the Western Palearctic are most likely to shift their distribution northwards and eastwards in response to climate change, so we evaluated whether the mean protection level of the most critical sites for ducks shows any latitudinal or longitudinal trend. From the description of site protection level in the Critical Site Network database (little/none to full protection) a site protection score was computed, ranging from 0 (little/none) to 3 (full protection). More northern sites had greater mean protection scores. Conversely, a negative longitudinal gradient was identified, with much poorer protection of critical duck sites in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. This is where duck populations are currently the largest, and among the areas where duck populations are expected to increase in the future following climate change, although currently a relatively high proportion also show decreasing population trends. The site protection score was also greatest, on average, in member states of the European Union rather than in other European countries, suggesting EU directives have been successful at improving the level of protection of the most important wetlands for ducks. Although ducks could benefit from further conservation of the sites they use anywhere within their geographic range, and there is room for improvement of protection score in all areas, this study suggests that future site protection efforts should be internationally coordinated, and first targeted at sites east of the Mediterranean shore.

Keywords

Annual range shift Geographic mismatch Protected areas Waterbirds Ducks 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Szabolcs Nagy and the Critical Sites Network Tool online portal, developed jointly by Wetlands International, BirdLife International and the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre under the Wings over Wetlands: the UNEP-GEF African-Eurasian Flyway Project. Site coordinates and areas were collected from the relevant Important Bird & Biodiversity Area (IBA) factsheets, downloaded from the BirdLife Data Zone http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/site (on 1st December 2015). Clémence Deschamps and Marie Suet are thanked for GIS advice, and Elie Gaget for his very constructive and thought-provoking comments on an earlier version of the manuscript; comments from the Associate Editor and two anonymous referees were also very helpful. This project was funded by ONCFS.

References

  1. Aarvak T, Øien IJ, Krasnov YV, Gavrilo MV, Shavykin AA (2013) The European wintering population of Steller’s Eider Polysticta stelleri reassessed. Bird Conserv Int 23:337–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambrosini R, Cuervo JJ, du Feu C, Fiedler W, Musitelli F, Rubolini D, Sicurella B, Spina F, Saino N, Møller AP (2016) Migratory connectivity and effects of winter temperatures on migratory behaviour of the European robin Erithacus rubecula: a continent-wide analysis. J Anim Ecol 85:749–760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Araújo MB, Alagador D, Cabeza M, Nogués-Bravo D, Thuiller W (2011) Climate change threatens European conservation areas. Ecol Lett 14:484–492CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Beatty WS, Kesler DC, Webb EB, Raedeke AH, Naylor LW, Humburg DD (2014) The role of protected area wetlands in waterfowl habitat conservation: implications for protected area network design. Biol Cons 176:144–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheets. http://www.birdlife.org. Accessed 01 July 16
  6. Brommer JE, Møller AP (2010) Range margins, climate change, and ecology. In: Møller AP, Fiedler W, Berthold P (eds) Effects of climate change on birds. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 249–274Google Scholar
  7. Butt N, Possingham HP, De Los Rios C, Maggini R, Fuller RA, Maxwell SL, Watson JEM (2016) Challenges in assessing the vulnerability of species to climate change to inform conservation actions. Biol Cons 199:10–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clausen KK, Madsen J (2016) Philopatry in a changing world: response of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus to the loss of a key autumn staging area due to restoration of Filsø Lake, Denmark. J Orn 157:229–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dalby L (2013) Waterfowl, duck distributions and a changing climate. Dissertation, Aarhus UniversityGoogle Scholar
  10. Dalby L, Fox AD, Petersen IK, Delany S, Svenning JC (2013) Temperature does not dictate the wintering distribution of European dabbling ducks. Ibis 155:80–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Delany S (2005) Guidelines for participants in the International Waterbird Census (IWC). Wetlands International, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  12. Donald PF, Sanderson FJ, Burfield IJ, Bierman SM, Gregory RD, Waliczky Z (2007) International conservation policy delivers benefits for birds in Europe. Science 317:810–813CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Elmberg J, Hessel R, Fox AD, Dalby L (2014) Interpreting seasonal range shifts in migratory birds: a critical assessment of ‘short-stopping’ and a suggested terminology. J Orn 155:571–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Faleiro FV, Machado RB, Loyola RD (2013) Defining spatial conservation priorities in the face of land-use and climate change. Biol Cons 158:248–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fox AD, Dalby L, Christensen TK, Nagy S, Balsby TJS, Crowe O, Clausen P, Deceuninck B, Devos K, Holt CA, Hornman M, Keller V, Langendoen T, Lehikoinen A, Lorentsen SV, Molina B, Nilsson L, Stīpniece A, Svenning JC, Wahl J (2016) Seeking explanations for recent changes in abundance of wintering Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) in northwest Europe. Ornis Fennica 93:12–25Google Scholar
  16. Galewski T, Collen B, McRae L, Loh J, Grillas P, Gauthier-Clerc M, Devictor V (2011) Long-term trends in the abundance of Mediterranean wetland vertebrates: from global recovery to localized declines. Biol Cons 144:1392–1399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guillemain M, Fritz H, Duncan P (2002) The importance of protected areas as nocturnal feeding grounds for dabbling ducks wintering in western France. Biol Cons 103:183–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guillemain M, Pöysä H, Fox AD, Arzel C, Dessborn L, Ekroos J, Gunnarsson G, Holm TK, Christensen TK, Lehikoinen A, Mitchell C, Rintala J, Møller AP (2013) Effects of climate change on European ducks: what do we know and what do we not know? Wildl Biol 19:404–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guillemain M, Champagnon J, Massez G, Pernollet CA, George T, Momerency A, Simon G (2015) Becoming more sedentary? Changes in recovery positions of Mallard Anas platyrhynchos ringed in the Camargue, France, over the last 50 years. Wildfowl 65:51–63Google Scholar
  20. Gunnarsson G, Waldenström J, Fransson T (2012) Direct and indirect effects of winter harshness on the survival of Mallards Anas platyrhynchos in northwest Europe. Ibis 154:307–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hannah L (2010) A global conservation system for climate-change adaptation. Cons Biol 24:70–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hannah L, Midgley G, Andelman S, Araújo M, Hughes G, Martinez-Meyer E, Pearson R, Williams P (2007) Protected area needs in a changing climate. Front Ecol Envir 5:131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hole DG, Willis SG, Pain DJ, Fishpool LD, Butchart SHM, Collingham YC, Rahbek C, Huntley B (2009) Projected impacts of climate change on a continent-wide protected area network. Ecol Lett 12:420–431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hovick TJ, Allred BW, McGranahan DA, Palmer MW, Elmore RD, Fuhlendorf SD (2016) Informing conservation by identifying range shift patterns across breeding habitats and migration strategies. Biodiv Cons 25:345–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Huntley B, Green RE, Collingham YC, Willis SG (2007) A climatic atlas of European breeding birds. Durham University, DurhamGoogle Scholar
  26. IPCC (2014) Climate Change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability part a global and sectoral aspects. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds) Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  27. Lehikoinen A, Virkkala R (2015) North by north-west: climate change and directions of density shifts in birds. Glob Change Biol 22:1121–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lehikoinen A, Jaatinen K, Vähätalo AV, Clausen P, Crowe O, Deceuninck B, Hearn R, Holt CA, Hornman M, Keller V, Nilsson L, Langendoen T, Tolmánkova I, Wahl J, Fox AD (2013) Rapid climate driven shifts in wintering distributions of three common waterbird species. Glob Change Biol 19:2071–2081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Maclean I, Rehfisch M (2008) Guidelines on the measures needed to help waterbirds adapt to climate change. AEWA Conservation Guidelines No. 12, AEWA Technical Series No. 27, BonnGoogle Scholar
  30. Maclean IMD, Austin GE, Rehfisch MM, Blew J, Crowe O, Delany S, Devos K, Deceuninck B, Günther K, Laursen K, Van Roomen M, Wahl J (2008) Climate change causes rapid changes in the distribution and site abundance of birds in winter. Glob Change Biol 14:489–2500Google Scholar
  31. Madsen J (1998) Experimental refuges for migratory waterfowl in Danish wetlands. II. Tests of hunting disturbance effects. J Appl Ecol 35:398–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mathevet R, Tamisier A (2002) Creation of a nature reserve, its effects on hunting management and waterfowl distribution in the Camargue (southern France). Biodiv Cons 11:509–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Meller K, Vähätalo AV, Hokkanen T, Rintala J, Piha M, Lehikoinen A (2016) Interannual variation and long-term trends in proportions of resident individuals in partially migratory birds. J Anim Ecol 85:570–580CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Meltofte H, Clausen P (2011) Forekomsten af svømmefugle på Tipperne 1929-2007 i relation til Ringkøbing Fjords miljøforhold. Dan Ornithol Foren Tidsskr 105:1–120 [in Danish with English summary and figure legends] Google Scholar
  35. Merilä J, Hendry AP (2014) Climate change, adaptation, and phenotypic plasticity: the problem and the evidence. Evol Appl 7:1–14CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Miller-Rushing AJ, Primack RB, Sekercioglu CH (2007) Conservation consequences of climate change for birds. In: Møller AP, Fiedler W, Berthold P (eds) Effects of climate change on birds. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 295–309Google Scholar
  37. Møller AP, Fiedler W, Berthold P (2010) Effects of climate change on birds. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  38. Nagy S, Flink S, Langendoen T (2015) Report on the conservation status of migatory waterbirds in the agreement area. Sixth Edition. Wetlands International/AEWA. http://www.unep-aewa.org/en/document/report-conservation-status-migratory-waterbirds-agreement-area-sixth-edition. Accessed 16 March 2017
  39. Newton I (2008) The migration ecology of birds. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. Nilsson L (2008) Changes in numbers and distribution of wintering waterfowl in Sweden during forty years, 1967–2006. Ornis Svec 18:135–226Google Scholar
  41. Ogilvie MA (1983) A migration study of the Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe using ringing recoveries. Dissertation, University of BristolGoogle Scholar
  42. Parmesan C, Yohe G (2003) A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 42:37–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pavón-Jordán D, Fox AD, Clausen P, Dagys M, Deceuninck B, Devos K, Hearn RD, Holt CA, Hornman M, Keller V, Langendoen T, Ławicki Ł, Lorentsen SH, Luigujõe L, Meissner W, Musil P, Nilsson L, Paquet JY, Stipniece A, Stroud DA, Wahl J, Zenatello M, Lehikoinen A (2015) Climate-driven changes in winter abundance of a migratory waterbird in relation to EU protected areas. Div Distr 21:571–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pearce-Higgins JW, Green RE (2014) Birds and climate change. Impacts and conservation responses. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pouzols FM, Toivonen T, Di Minin E, Kukkala A, Kullberg P, Kuusterä J, Lehtomäki J, Tenkanen H, Verburg PH, Moilanen A (2014) Global protected area expansion is compromised by projected land-use and parochialism. Nature 516:383–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ridgill SC, Fox AD (1990) Cold weather movements of waterfowl in Western Europe. IWRB Special Publication, SlimbridgeGoogle Scholar
  47. Robertson GJ, Cooke F (1999) Winter philopatry in migratory waterfowl. Auk 116:20–34Google Scholar
  48. Rodrigues ASL, Andelman SJ, Bakarr MI, Boitani L, Brooks TM, Cowling RM, Fishpool LDC, da Fonseca GAB, Gaston KJ, Hoffmann M, Long JS, Marquet PA, Pilgrim JD, Pressey RL, Schipper J, Sechrest W, Stuart SN, Underhill LG, Waller RW, Watts MEJ, Yan X (2004) Effectiveness of the global protected area network in representing species diversity. Nature 428:640–643CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Runge CA, Watson JEM, Butchart SHM, Hanson JO, Possingham HP, Fuller RA (2015) Protected areas and global conservation of migratory birds. Science 350:1255–1258CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Sauter A, Korner-Nievergelt F, Jenni L (2010) Evidence of climate change effects on within-winter movements of European Mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Ibis 152:600–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Scott DA, Rose PM (1996) Atlas of Anatidae populations in Africa and Western Eurasia. Wageningen, Wetlands InternationalGoogle Scholar
  52. Sheldon BC (2010) Genetic perspectives on the evolutionary consequences of climate change in birds. In: Møller AP, Fiedler W, Berthold P (eds) Effects of climate change on birds. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 149–168Google Scholar
  53. StatSoft (2011) STATISTICA (logiciel d’analyse des données), version 10. www.statsoft.fr
  54. Švažas S, Meissner W, Serebryakov V, Kozulin A, Grishanov G (2001) Changes of wintering sites of waterfowl in Central and Eastern Europe. OMPO Vilnius and Lithuanian Institute of Ecology, VilniusGoogle Scholar
  55. Thomas CD, Gillingham PK, Bradbury RB, Roy DB, Anderson BJ, Baxter JM, Bourn NAD, Crick HQP, Findon RA, Fox R, Hodgson JA, Holt AR, Morecroft MD, O’Hanlon NJ, Oliver TH, Pearce-Higgins JW, Procter DA, Thomas JA, Walker KJ, Walmsley CA, Wilson RJ, Hill JK (2012) Protected areas facilitate species’ range expansions. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 109:14063–14068CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Tománkova I, Reid N, Enlander I, Fox AD (2013) Ringing and recovery data prove poor at detecting migratory short-stopping of diving ducks associated with climate change throughout Europe. Ring Migr 28:30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wetlands International (2016) Waterbird population estimates. wpe.wetlands.org. Accessed 13 September 2016

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune SauvageUnité Avifaune Migratrice, La Tour du ValatArlesFrance
  2. 2.Wildfowl & Wetlands TrustGlosUK

Personalised recommendations