Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 631–651 | Cite as

Responses of ground living arthropods to landscape contrast and context in a forest-grassland mosaic

  • Inam YekwayoEmail author
  • James S. Pryke
  • Francois Roets
  • Michael J. Samways
Original Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Forest and plantation biodiversity


Landscape context and contrast are major features of transformed landscapes. These concepts are largely described in terms of vegetation and land use, and are rarely used on how other biodiversity responds to these anthropogenic boundaries. South African grassland matrix is naturally dotted with indigenous forest patches which have recently been transformed with plantations of non-native species. We investigate how various arthropod groups (detritivores, predators, ants) respond to juxtaposition of pines, natural forests and grasslands. We assess landscape context effects between natural forests and pines by determining how species that commonly occur in the interiors of these habitats use the adjacent habitat, and how landscape contrast between natural forests and grassland affects these groups proportionately. We sampled arthropods using pitfall traps and active searches in transects running from natural forest interiors across the edge into the matrix interior (grassland or pines). Natural forests had higher predator and detritivore diversity, while grassland had greater ant diversity. Results highlighted the complementarity of natural forests and grassland for arthropod diversity. Higher beta-diversity was recorded across landscape contrast than landscape context. Pine and natural forest associated species overlapped into adjacent habitats indicating that pines are used by certain natural forest species. However, pines are not true natural forest extensions, with only some species being supported. Pines may be connecting naturally isolated arthropod populations, which could have important evolutionary consequences. Only through appreciation of a range of arthropod groups and their response to context and contrast across the whole landscape can we undertake meaningful biodiversity conservation.


Natural forests Grassland Pine plantations Landscape ecology Insect conservation Biodiversity 



We thank Mondi for permitting sampling. Funding was from the National Research Foundation and the Department of Science and Technology (NRF/DST) Future Proofing Programme. We are grateful to J. van Schalkwyk, N. Yekwayo and G. Kietzka for field assistance, and A.S. Dippenaar-Schoeman, R. Gaigher, L. Hugo-Coetzee and D. Saccaggi for arthropod identification, and two anonymous reviewers for valuable comments on improving our manuscript.


  1. Ali-Shtayeh MS, Ali WMD, Jamous R (2010) Ecological investigations on terrestrial arthropod biodiversity under different grassland ecosystems in El-Fara’a area (Palestine). Biodivers Environ Sci Stud Ser 5:19–34Google Scholar
  2. Anderson MJ (2001) A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecol 26:32–46. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9993.2001.01070.pp.x Google Scholar
  3. Anderson MJ (2006) Distance-based tests for homogeneity of multivariate dispersions. Biometrics 62:245–253. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-0420.2005.00440.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson MJ, Willis TJ (2003) Canonical analysis of principal coordinates: a useful method of constrained ordination for ecology. Ecology 84:511–525. doi: 10.1890/0012-9658(2003)084[0511:caopca];2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baini F, Pitzalis M, Taiti S, Taglianti AV, Zapparoli M, Bologna MA (2012) Effects of reforestation with Quercus species on selected arthropod assemblages (Isopoda Oniscidea, Chilopoda, Coleoptera Carabidae) in a Mediterranean area. For Ecol Manag 286:183–191. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2012.08.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker AC, Murray BR (2012) Seasonal intrusion of litterfall from non-native pine plantations into surrounding native woodland: implications for management of an invasive plantation species. For Ecol Manag 277:25–37. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2012.04.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barlow J, Gardner TA, Louzada J, Peres CA (2010) Measuring the conservation value of tropical primary forests: the effect of occasional species on estimates of biodiversity uniqueness. PLoS ONE 5:e9609. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009609 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bates D, Mächler M, Bolker MB, Walker SC (2015) Fitting linear mixed-effects models using the lme4. J Stat Softw 67:1–48. doi: 10.18637/jss.v067.i01 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berndt LA, Brockerhoff EG, Jactel H (2008) Relevance of exotic pine plantations as a surrogate habitat for ground beetles (Carabidae) where native forest is rare. Biodivers Conserv 17:1171–1185. doi: 10.1007/s10531-008-9379-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bezemer TM, Harvey JA, Cronin JT (2014) Response of native insect communities to invasive plants. Annu Rev Entomol 59:119–141. doi: 10.1146/annurev-ento-011613-162104 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Biswas SR, Wagner HH (2012) Landscape contrast: a solution to hidden assumptions in the metacommunity concept. Landsc Ecol 27:621–631. doi: 10.1007/s10980-012-9732-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bizuet-Flores MY, Jimenéz-Jiménez ML, Zavala-Hurtado A, Corcuera P (2015) Diversity patterns of ground dwelling spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in five prevailing plant communities of the Cuatro Ciénegas Basin, Caohuila, Mexico. Rev Mex Biodivers 86:153–163. doi: 10.7550/rmb.45444 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bokhorst S, Wardle DA, Nilsson MC, Gundale MJ (2014) Impact of understory mosses and dwarf shrubs on soil micro-arthropods in a boreal forest chronosequence. Plant Soil 379:121–133. doi: 10.1007/s11104-014-2055-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bolker BM, Brooks ME, Clark CJ, Geange SW, Poulsen JR, Stevens MHH, White JSS (2009) Generalized linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolution. Trends Ecol Evol 24:127–135. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2008.10.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bourke D, Stanley D, O’Rourke E, Thompson R, Carnus T, Dauber J, Emmerson M, Whelan PA, Hecq F, Flynn E, Dolan L, Stout J (2014) Response of farmland biodiversity to the introduction of bioenergy crops: effects of local factors and surrounding landscape context. GCB Bioenergy 6:275–289. doi: 10.1111/gcbb.12089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Campos RC, Hernández MIM (2013) Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. Rev Bras Entomol 57:47–54. doi: 10.1590/S0085-56262013000100008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Campos RC, Hernández MIM (2015) Changes in the dynamics of functional groups in communities of dung beetles in Atlantic forest fragments adjacent to transgenic maize crops. Ecol Indic 49:216–227. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.09.043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Car CA (2010) Pine plantations and native millipedes (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae) in south-eastern New South Wales, Austalia. Aust J Entomol 49:317–323. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-6055.2010.00771.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cardoso P, Rigal F, Carvalho JC (2015) BAT—Biodiversity Assessment Tools, an R package for the measurement and estimation of alpha and beta taxon, phylogenetic and functional diversity. Methods Ecol Evol 6:232–236. doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.12310 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Díaz-Aguilar I, Quideau SA, Proctor HC, Kishchuk BE, Spence JR (2013) Influence of stand composition on predatory mite (Mesostigmata) assemblages from the forest floor in western Canadian boreal mixedwood forests. For Ecol Manag 309:105–114. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2013.03.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dinnage R, Cadotte MW, Haddad NM, Crutsinger GM, Tilman D (2012) Diversity of plant evolutionary lineages promotes arthropod diversity. Ecol Lett 15:1308–1317. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01854.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Enright WD (2000) The effect of terrestrial invasive alien plants on water scarcity in South Africa. Phys Chem Earth 25:237–242. doi: 10.1016/S1464-1909(00)00010-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Evans AM, Clinton PW, Allen RB, Frampton CM (2003) The influence of logs on the spatial distribution of litter-dwelling invertebrates and forest floor processes in New Zealand forests. For Ecol Manag 184:251–262. doi: 10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00158-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Finch OD (2005) Evaluation of mature conifer plantations as secondary habitat for epigeic forest arthropods (Coleoptera: Carabidae; Araneae). For Ecol Manag 204:23–36. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2004.07.071 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fisher BL, Robertson HG (2002) Comparison and origin of forest and grassland ant assemblages in the high plateau of Madagascar (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Biotropica 34:155–167. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2002.tb00251.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Franklin JF (1993) Preserving biodiversity: species, ecosystems or landscapes. Ecol Appl 3:202–205. doi: 10.2307/1941820 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gallé R, Torma A (2009) Epigeic spider (Araneae) assemblages of natural forest edges in the Kiskunság (Hungary). Community Ecol 10:146–151. doi: 10.1556/ComEc.10.2009.2.2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gallé R, Vesztergom N, Somogyi T (2011) Environmental conditions affecting spiders in grasslands at the lower reach of the river Tisza in Hungary. Entomol Fennica 22:29–38Google Scholar
  29. Geldenhuys CJ (1997) Native forest regeneration in pine and eucalypt plantations in Northern Province, South Africa. For Ecol Manag 99:101–115. doi: 10.1016/S0378-1127(97)00197-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gerlach J, Samways MJ, Pryke JS (2013) Terrestrial invertebrates as bioindicators: an overview of available taxonomic groups. J Insect Conserv 17:831–850. doi: 10.1007/s10841-013-9565-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gonçalves-Souza T, Matallana G, Brescovit AD (2008) Effects of habitat fragmentation on the spider community (Arachnida, Araneae) in three Atlantic forest remnants in Southeastern Brazil. Rev Iber Aracnologia 16:35–42Google Scholar
  32. Gotelli NJ, Colwell RK (2001) Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness. Ecol Lett 4:379–391. doi: 10.1046/j.1461-0248.2001.00230.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gould SF, Mackey BG (2015) Site vegetation characteristics are more important than landscape context in determining bird assemblages in revegetation. Restor Ecol 23:670–680. doi: 10.1111/rec.12222 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hortal J, Borges PAV, Gaspar C (2006) Evaluating the performance of species richness estimators: sensitivity to sample grain size. J Anim Ecol 75:274–287. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2006.01048.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hothorn T, Bretz F, Westfall P (2008) Simultaneous inference in general parametric models. Biom J 50:346–363. doi: 10.1002/bimj.200810425 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hunter ML Jr (2005) A mesofilter conservation strategy to complement fine and coarse filters. Conserv Biol 19:1025–1029. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00172.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ings TC, Hartley SE (1999) The effect of habitat structure on carabid communities during the regeneration of a native Scottish forest. For Ecol Manag 119:123–136. doi: 10.1016/S0378-1127(98)00517-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jung JK, Kim ST, Lee SY, Park CG, Park JK, Lee JH (2014) A comparison of diversity and species composition of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) between conifer plantations and regenerating forests in Korea. Ecol Res 29:877–887. doi: 10.1007/s11284-014-1175-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kotze DJ, Samways MJ (1999) Invertebrate conservation at the interface between the grassland matrix and natural Afromontane forest fragments. Biodivers Conserv 8:1339–1363. doi: 10.1023/A:1008945302029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kotze DJ, Samways MJ (2001) No general edge effects for invertebrates at Afromontane forest/grassland ecotones. Biodivers Conserv 10:443–466. doi: 10.1023/A:1016606209906 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kruess A, Tscharntke T (2002) Contrasting responses of plant and insect diversity to variation in grazing intensity. Biol Conserv 106:293–302. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00255-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kwon TS, Park YK, Lim JH, Ryou SH, Lee CM (2013) Change of arthropod abundance in burned forests: different patterns according to functional guilds. J Asia Pac Entomol 16:321–328. doi: 10.1016/j.aspen.2013.04.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kwon TS, Lee CM, Sung JH (2014) Diversity decrease of ant (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) after a forest disturbance: different responses among functional guilds. Zool Stud 53:1–11. doi: 10.1186/s40555-014-0037-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lacasella F, Gratton C, de Felici S, Isaia M, Zapparoli M, Marta S, Sbordoni V (2015) Asymmetrical responses of forest and “beyond edge” arthropod communities across a forest-grassland ecotone. Biodivers Conserv 24:447–465. doi: 10.1007/s10531-014-0825-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lange M, Türke M, Pašalić E, Boch S, Hessenmöller D, Müller J, Prati D, Socher SA, Fischer M, Weisser WW, Gossner MM (2014) Effects of forest management on ground-dwelling beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Staphylinidae) in Central Europe are mainly mediated by changes in forest structure. For Ecol Manag 329:166–176. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2014.06.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Law EA, Meijaard E, Bryan BA, Mallawaarachchi T, Koh LP, Wilson KA (2015) Better land-use allocation outperforms land sparing and land sharing approaches to conservation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biol Conserv 186:276–286. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2015.03.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Le Roux DS, Ikin K, Lindenmayer DB, Manning AD, Gibbons P (2014) The future of large old trees in urban landscapes. PLoS ONE 9:1–11. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099403 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu WPA, Janion C, Chown SL (2012) Collembola diversity in the critically endangered Cape Flats Sand Fynbos and adjacent pine plantations. Pedobiologia 55:203–209. doi: 10.1016/j.pedobi.2012.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Liu Y, Rothenwöhrer C, Scherber C, Batáry P, Elek Z, Steckel J, Erasmi S, Tscharntke T, Westphal C (2014) Functional beetle diversity in managed grasslands: effects of region, landscape context and land use intensity. Landsc Ecol 29:529–540. doi: 10.1007/s10980-014-9987-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McCune JL, Vellend M (2015) Using plant traits to predict the sensitivity of colonizations and extirpations to landscape context. Oecologia 178:511–524. doi: 10.1007/s00442-014-3217-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Medina AM, Lopes PP (2014) Seasonality in the dung beetle community in a Brazilian tropical dry forest: do small changes make a difference. J Insect Sci 14:1–11. doi: 10.1673/031.014.123 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Moran VC, Hoffmann JH, Donnelly D, van Wilgen BW, Zimmermann HG (2000) Biological control of alien invasive pine trees (Pinus species) in South Africa. In: Proceedings of the X international symposium on biological control of weeds, Cape Town, 4–14 July 2000Google Scholar
  53. Moranz RA, Debinski DM, Winkler L, Trager J, McGranahan DA, Engle DM, Miller JR (2013) Effects of grassland management practices on ant functional groups in central North America. J Insect Conserv 17:699–713. doi: 10.1007/s10841-013-9554-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Moreira F, Beja P, Morgado R, Reino L, Gordinho L, Delgado A, Borralho R (2005) Effects of field management and landscape context on grassland wintering birds in Southern Portugal. Agric Ecosyst Environ 109:59–74. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2005.02.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Morris MG (2000) The effects of structure and its dynamics on the ecology and conservation of arthropods in British grasslands. Biol Conserv 95:129–142. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00028-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Murcia C (1995) Edge effects in fragmented forests: implications for conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 10:58–62. doi: 10.1016/S0169-5347(00)88977-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Murray BR, Baker AC, Robson TC (2009) Impacts of the replacement of native woodland with exotic pine plantations on leaf litter invertebrate assemblages: a test of a novel framework. Int J Ecol 2009:1–6. doi: 10.1155/2009/490395 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Napierała A, Labijaka B, Skwierczyński F, Konwerski S, Błoszyk J (2015) Influence of habitat type and natural disturbances on uropodine mite communities (Acari; Mesostigmata: Uropodina) in oak-hornbeam forests in Central Europe. Int J Acarol 41:41–52. doi: 10.1080/01647954.2014.985713 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ober HK, DeGroote LW (2011) Effects of litter removal on arthropod communities in pine plantations. Biodivers Conserv 20:1273–1286. doi: 10.1007/s1053-011-0027-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Oksanes J, Blanchet FG, Friendly M, Kindt R, Legendre P, McGlinn D, Minchin PR, O’Hara RB, Simpson GL, Solymos P, Stevens AHH, Szoecs E, Helene W (2016) Vegan: community ecology package version 2.4-1Google Scholar
  61. Oxbrough A, French V, Irwin S, Kelly TC, Smiddy P, O’Halloran J (2012) Can mixed species stands enhance arthropod diversity in plantation forests. For Ecol Manag 270:11–18. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2012.01.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Paris C, Espadaler X (2012) Foraging activity of native ants on trees in forest fragments colonized by the invasive ant Lasiusneglectus. Psyche 2012:1–9. doi: 10.1155/2012/261316 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pawson SM, Brockerhoff EG, Didham RK (2009) Native forest generalists dominate carabid assemblages along a stand age chronosequence in an exotic Pinus radiata plantation. For Ecol Manag 258:108–116. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2009.08.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Perner J, Schueler S (2004) Estimating the density of ground dwelling arthropods with pitfall traps using a nested-cross array. J Anim Ecol 73:469–477. doi: 10.1111/j.0021-8790.2004.00821.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Podgaiski LR, Goldas CS, Ferrando CPR, Silveira FS, Joner F, Overbeck GE, Mendoça MS Jr, Pillar VD (2014) Burning effects on detritivory and litter decay in Campos grasslands. Austral Ecol 39:686–695. doi: 10.1111/aec.12132 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pryke SR, Samways MJ (2003) Quality of remnant indigenous grassland linkages for adult butterflies (Lepidoptera) in an afforested African landscape. Biodivers Conserv 12:1985–2004. doi: 10.1023/A:1024103527611 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pryke JS, Samways MJ (2009) Recovery of invertebrate diversity in a rehabilitated city landscape mosaic in the heart of a biodiversity hotspot. Landsc Urban Plan 93:54–62. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2009.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pryke JS, Samways MJ (2012) Conservation management of complex natural forest and plantation edge effects. Landsc Ecol 27:73–85. doi: 10.1007/s10980-011-9668-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pryke JS, Samways MJ (2015) Conserving natural heterogeneity is crucial for designing effective ecological networks. Landsc Ecol 30:595–607. doi: 10.1007/s10980-014-0096-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Queiroz ACM, Ribas CR, França FM (2013) Microhabitat characteristics that regulate ant richness patterns: the importance of leaf litter for epigaeic ants. Sociobiol 60:367–373. doi: 10.13102/sociobiology.v60i4.367-373 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Radtke TM, Glasier JRN, Wilson SD (2014) Species composition and abundance of ants and other invertebrates in stands of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and native grasslands in the northern Great Plains. Can J Zool 92:49–55. doi: 10.1139/cjz-2013-0103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ratsirarson H, Robertson HG, Picker MD, van Noort S (2002) Indigenous forests versus exotic eucalypt and pine plantations: a comparison of leaf litter invertebrate communities. Afr Entomol 10:93–99Google Scholar
  73. Robson TC, Baker AC, Murray BR (2009) Differences in leaf-litter invertebrate assemblages between radiata pine plantations and neighbouring native eucalypt woodland. Austral Ecol 34:368–376. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9993.2009.01936.x Google Scholar
  74. Rusch A, Valantin-Morison M, Sarthou JP, Estrade JR (2013) Effect of crop management and landscape context on insect pest populations and crop damage. Agric Ecosyst Environ 166:118–125. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2011.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Samways MJ, McGeoch MA, New TR (2010) Insect conservation: a handbook of approaches and methods. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  76. Schneider G, Krauss J, Boetzl FA, Fritze MA, Steffan-Dewenter I (2016) Spillover from adjacent crop and forest habitats shapes carabid beetle assemblages in fragmented semi natural grasslands Gudrun. Oecologia. doi: 10.1007/s00442-016-3710-6 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Sinclair JE, New TR (2004) Pine plantations in south eastern Australia support highly impoverished ant assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J Insect Conserv 8:277–286. doi: 10.1007/s10841-004-0239-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Stenchly K, Clough Y, Tscharntke T (2012) Spider species richness in cocoa agroforestry systems, comparing vertical strata, local management and distance to forest. Agric Ecosyst Environ 149:189–194. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2011.03.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tóthmérész B, Nagy DD, Mizser S, Bogyó D, Magura T (2014) Edge effects on ground-dwelling beetles (Carabidae and Staphylinidae) in oak forest-forest edge-grassland habitats in Hungary. Eur J Entomol 111:686–691. doi: 10.14411/eje.2014.091 Google Scholar
  80. van Wilgen BW (2015) Plantation forestry and invasive pines in the Cape Floristic Region: towards conflict resolution. S Afr J Sci 111:1–2. doi: 10.17159/sajs.2015/a0114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. van Wilgen BW, Richardson DM (2012) Three centuries of managing introduced conifers in South Africa: benefits, impacts, changing perceptions and conflict resolution. J Environ Manag 106:56–68. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.03.052 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wethered R, Lawes MJ (2005) Nestedness of bird assemblages in fragmented Afromontane forest: the effect of plantation forestry in the matrix. Biol Conserv 123:125–137. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2004.10.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wiens JA, Stenseth NC, Van Horne B, Ims RA (1993) Ecological mechanisms and landscape ecology. Oikos 66:369–380. doi: 10.2307/3544931 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wiezik M, Wieziková A, Svitok M (2010) Effects of secondary succession in abandoned grassland on the activity of ground-foraging ant assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Soc Zool Bohem 74:153–160Google Scholar
  85. Wiezik M, Svitok M, Wieziková A, Dovčiak M (2013) Shrub encroachment alters composition and diversity of ant communities in abandoned grasslands of western Carpathians. Biodivers Conserv 22:2305–2320. doi: 10.1007/s10531-013-0446-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wiezik M, Svitok M, Wieziková A, Dovčiak M (2015) Identifying shifts in leaf-litter ant assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) across ecosystem boundaries using multiple sampling methods. PLoS ONE 10:1–14. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134502 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Yaacobi G, Ziv Y, Rosenzweig ML (2007) Effects of interactive scale-dependent variables on beetle diversity patterns in a semi-arid agricultural landscape. Landsc Ecol 22:687–703. doi: 10.1007/s10980-006-9061-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yekwayo I, Pryke JS, Roets F, Samways MJ (2016) Surrounding vegetation matters for arthropods of small, natural patches of indigenous forest. Insect Conserv Divers 9:224–235. doi: 10.1111/icad.12160 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yu XD, Luo TH, Zhou JZ (2014) Composition and distribution of ground-dwelling beetles among oak fragments and surrounding pine plantations in a temperate forest of North China. Insect Sci 21:114–124. doi: 10.1111/1744-7917.12039 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Inam Yekwayo
    • 1
    Email author
  • James S. Pryke
    • 1
  • Francois Roets
    • 1
  • Michael J. Samways
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Conservation Ecology and EntomologyStellenbosch UniversityMatielandSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations