Skip to main content

Geographic heat maps of lichen traits derived by combining LIAS light description and GBIF occurrence data, provided on a new platform


LIAS gtm, a new platform of the LIAS lichen information system, is presented. It allows for the visualization of phenotypic traits via geographic heatmapping of relative trait frequencies (RTFs) based on data derived from GBIF (occurrence data) and from LIAS light (taxon description data). The data are combined and referred to defined geographic areas of interest. Exemplarily, LIAS gtm provides distribution patterns of a selection of single, dual or multiple traits. The data are visualized for two lichen record hotspots, Scandinavia and Australia. Detailed technical information is provided on the platform web site itself.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  • Cocchietto M, Skert N, Nimis PL, Sava G (2002) A review on usnic acid, an interesting natural compound. Naturwissenschaften 89:137–146

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Elix J. A., Kalb K., Rupprecht J., Schobert R (2016) [last visited: 2016-03-28]. LIAS metabolites—A database for the rapid identification of secondary metabolites of lichens (Rambold G, ed.),.

  • Hauck M, Jürgens S-R, Leuschner Ch (2010) Norstictic acid: correlations between its physico-chemical characteristics and ecological preferences of lichens producing this depsidone. Environ Exp Bot 68(3):309–313. doi:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2010.01.003

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ingólfsdóttir K (2002) Molecules of interest. Usnic acid. Phytochemistry 61(7):729–736

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Peršoh D, Beck A, Rambold G (2004) The distribution of ascus types and photobiontal selection in Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota) against the background of a revised SSU nrDNA phylogeny. Mycological Progress 3(2):103–121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rambold G. (lead editor; for detailed information see and 2016 [last visited: 2016-03-28]. LIAS: A global information system for lichenized and non-lichenized ascomycetes (version Dec 2015). In: species 2000 & ITIS catalogue of life, 25th March 2016 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds.), Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, The Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858

  • Rambold G, Elix JA, Heindl-Tenhunen B, Köhler T, Nash THIII, Neubacher D, Reichert W, Zedda L, Triebel D (2014) LIAS light—Towards the ten thousand species milestone. MycoKeys 8:11–16. doi:10.3897/mycokeys.8.6605

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Triebel D., Bensch K (2016) [last visited: 2016-03-01]. LIAS names—A database with names of lichens, lichenicolous fungi and non-lichenized ascomycetes,

  • Wikipedia contributors. 2016 [last visited: 2016-03-28]. ‘Köppen climate classification’, wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,

  • Zedda L, Rambold G (2015). The diversity of lichenised fungi: ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. Recent Adv Lichenol: 122–140

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gerhard Rambold.

Additional information

Communicated by T.G. Allan Green.

This article belongs to the Topical Collection: Forest and plantation biodiversity.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rambold, G., Zedda, L., Coyle, J.R. et al. Geographic heat maps of lichen traits derived by combining LIAS light description and GBIF occurrence data, provided on a new platform. Biodivers Conserv 25, 2743–2751 (2016).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Biogeography
  • Ecoinformatics
  • Heatmapping
  • Lichen traits
  • LIAS gtm