The role of planted forests in the provision of habitat: an Irish perspective

Abstract

The continued decline of natural forests globally has increased interest in the potential of planted forests to support biodiversity. Here, we examine the potential conservation benefits of plantation forests from an Irish perspective, a country where remaining natural forests are fragmented and degraded, and the majority of the forest area is comprised of non-native Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) plantations. We examine the true value of Irish plantation forests to native biodiversity, relative to remaining natural forest fragments, and to prior and alternative land use to afforestation. We find that plantation forests provide a suitable surrogate habitat primarily for generalist species, as well as providing habitat for certain species of conservation concern. However, we find that plantation forests provide poor habitat for native forest specialists, and examine potential management strategies which may be employed to improve habitat provision services for this group.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Aubin I, Messier C, Bouchard A (2008) Can plantations develop understory biological and physical attributes of naturally regenerated forests? Biol Conserv 141:2461–2476

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Baker SC, Halpern CB, Wardlaw TJ, Crawford RL, Bigley RE, Edgar GJ, Evans SA, Franklin JF, Jordan GJ, Karpievitch Y (2015) Short-and long-term benefits for forest biodiversity of retaining unlogged patches in harvested areas. For Ecol Manag 353:187–195

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Balvanera P, Pfisterer AB, Buchmann N, He JS, Nakashizuka T, Raffaelli D, Schmid B (2006) Quantifying the evidence for biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning and services. Ecol Lett 9:1146–1156

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Barnosky AD, Matzke N, Tomiya S, Wogan GO, Swartz B, Quental TB, Marshall C, McGuire JL, Lindsey EL, Maguire KC (2011) Has the Earth/’s sixth mass extinction already arrived? Nature 471:51–57

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Barron C (2009) The control of rhododendron in native woodlands. Native Woodland Information Note 3, Woodlands of Ireland and Irish Forest Service

  6. Benton TG, Vickery JA, Wilson JD (2003) Farmland biodiversity: is habitat heterogeneity the key? Trends Ecol Evol 18:182–188

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Berndt LA, Brockerhoff EG, Jactel H (2008) Relevance of exotic pine plantations as a surrogate habitat for ground beetles (Carabidae) where native forest is rare. Biodivers Conserv 17:1171–1185

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bertomeu M, Romero C (2001) Managing forest biodiversity: a zero-one goal programming approach. Agric Syst 68:197–213

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bishop D, Majka CG, Bondrup-Nielsen S, Peck SB, Klimaszewski J (2009) Deadwood and saproxylic beetle diversity in naturally disturbed and managed spruce forests in Nova Scotia. Biodivers Biosyst Ecol Can Coleopt II ZooKeys 22:309–340

    Google Scholar 

  10. Black K, Gallagher G, O’Brien P, Redmond J, Barrett F, Twomey M (2008) Dispelling myths: the true extent of recent peatland afforestation in Ireland. Coford Connects Environ, No. 8, COFORD

  11. Breeuwer A, Robroek BJ, Limpens J, Heijmans MM, Schouten MG, Berendse F (2009) Decreased summer water table depth affects peatland vegetation. Basic Appl Ecol 10:330–339

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Bremer LL, Farley KA (2010) Does plantation forestry restore biodiversity or create green deserts? A synthesis of the effects of land-use transitions on plant species richness. Biodivers Conserv 19:3893–3915

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Brockerhoff EG, Ecroyd CE, Leckie AC, Kimberley MO (2003) Diversity and succession of adventive and indigenous vascular understorey plants in Pinus radiata plantation forests in New Zealand. For Ecol Manag 185:307–326

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Brockerhoff EG, Jactel H, Parrotta JA, Quine CP, Sayer J (2008) Plantation forests and biodiversity: oxymoron or opportunity? Biodivers Conserv 17:925–951

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Buckland, PI (2009) The bugs coleopteran ecology package (BugsCEP): the development and implementation of software for palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatological research

  16. Bullock CH, Collier MJ, Convery F (2012) Peatlands, their economic value and priorities for their future management—the example of Ireland. Land Use Policy 29:921–928

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Burgess M (2014) Restoring abandoned coppice for birds: few effects of conservation management on occupancy, fecundity and productivity of hole nesting birds. For Ecol Manag 330:205–217

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Buscardo E, Smith GF, Kelly DL, Freitas H, Iremonger S, Mitchell FJ, O’Donoghue S, McKee A-M (2008) The early effects of afforestation on biodiversity of grasslands in Ireland. Biodivers Conserv 17:1057–1072

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Calladine J, Humphreys EM, Strachan F, Jardine DC (2009) Forestry thinning in commercial conifer plantations has little effect on bird species richness and breeding abundance. Bird Study 56:137–141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Calladine J, Bray J, Broome A, Fuller RJ (2015) Comparison of breeding bird assemblages in conifer plantations managed by continuous cover forestry and clearfelling. For Ecol Manag 344:20–29

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Carnus J-M, Parrotta J, Brockerhoff E, Arbez M, Jactel H, Kremer A, Lamb D, O’Hara K, Walters B (2006) Planted forests and biodiversity. J For 104:65–77

    Google Scholar 

  22. Cattin M-F, Blandenier G, Banašek-Richter C, Bersier L-F (2003) The impact of mowing as a management strategy for wet meadows on spider (Araneae) communities. Biol Conserv 113:179–188

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Cole LJ, McCracken DI, Downie IS, Dennis P, Foster GN, Waterhouse T, Murphy KJ, Griffin AL, Kennedy MP (2005) Comparing the effects of farming practices on ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and spider (Araneae) assemblages of Scottish farmland. Biodivers Conserv 14:441–460

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Cooper A, McCann T, Ridge D (2008) Vegetation development in second rotation Irish conifer plantations. For Ecol Manag 255:962–972

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Coote L, Smith GF, Kelly DL, O’Donoghue S, Dowding P, Iremonger S, Mitchell FJ (2007) Epiphytes of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) plantations in Ireland and the effects of open spaces. Biodivers Conserv 16:4009–4024

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Coote L, French L, Moore K, Mitchell F, Kelly D (2012) Can plantation forests support plant species and communities of semi-natural woodland? For Ecol Manag 283:86–95

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Cross J (2012) Ireland’s native woodlands: a summary based on the national survey of native woodlands. Irish For 69:73–95

    Google Scholar 

  28. DAFM (2014) Forests, products and people—Ireland’s forest policy: a renewed vision. Department of Food, Agriculture and the Marine, Dublin

    Google Scholar 

  29. Day K, Carthy J (1988) Changes in carabid beetle communities accompanying a rotation of Sitka spruce. Agric Ecosyst Environ 24:407–415

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. de Groot RS, Alkemade R, Braat L, Hein L, Willemen L (2010) Challenges in integrating the concept of ecosystem services and values in landscape planning, management and decision making. Ecol Complex 7:260–272

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Deal RL, Cochran B, Larocco G (2012) Bundling of ecosystem services to increase forestland value and enhance sustainable forest management. For Policy Econ 17:69–76

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Dhubháin ÁN (2010) An evaluation of continuous cover forestry in Ireland. Coford, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Dublin

    Google Scholar 

  33. Dhubhain AN, Walshe J, Bulfin M, Keane M, Mills P (2001) The initial development of a windthrow risk model for Sitka spruce in Ireland. Forestry 74:161–170

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Dhubháin ÁN, Bolger T, Keane M, Freeman N, Holzmann M, Kennedy S, O’Hare D, Hendrick E (2005) Continuous cover forestry in Ireland. Forest research and development in Ireland 2004—Underpinning industry development. In: Proceedings of the COFORD conference, 20–21, 2005. P 27

  35. Díaz S, Fargione J, Chapin FS, Tilman D (2006) Biodiversity loss threatens human well-being. PLoS Biol 4:1300–1305

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Eakin M (1995) A botanical survey of conserved grassland in County Fermanagh. Irish Grassland, their Biology and Managment, Royal Irish Acadamey, Dublin

  37. EUROSTAT (2011) Forestry in the EU and the world: a statistical portrait. European Union, Belgium

    Google Scholar 

  38. Fahy O, Gormally M (1998) A comparison of plant and carabid beetle communities in an Irish oak woodland with a nearby conifer plantation and clearfelled site. For Ecol Manag 110:263–273

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Farrell C, Doyle G (2003) Rehabilitation of industrial cutaway Atlantic blanket bog in County Mayo, north-west Ireland. Wetl Ecol Manag 11:21–35

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Forest Europe 2011 UNECE and FAO (2011) State of Europe’s forests 2011. Status and trends in sustainable forest management in Europe

  41. Forest Service (2000) Forest Biodiversity Guidelines Republic of Ireland. Forest Service of Ireland, Department of the Marine and Natural Resources, Dublin

    Google Scholar 

  42. Forest Service (2008) Irish Forests—A brief history. Forest Service of Ireland, Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Dublin

    Google Scholar 

  43. Forest Service 2013 (2013) National Forest Inventory—Republic of Ireland—results. Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Wexford

    Google Scholar 

  44. Forest Service N I (2015) Northern Ireland woodland cover. Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Dundonald

    Google Scholar 

  45. Fossit JA (2002) A guide to habitats in Ireland. The Hertiage Council, Kilkenny

    Google Scholar 

  46. French LJ, Smith GF, Kelly DL, Mitchell FJ, O’Donoghue S, Iremonger SF, McKee A-M (2008) Ground flora communities in temperate oceanic plantation forests and the influence of silvicultural, geographic and edaphic factors. For Ecol Manag 255:476–494

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Fuller RJ, Gaston KJ, Quine CP (2007) Living on the edge: British and Irish woodland birds in a European context. Ibis 149:53–63

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Fuller L, Irwin S, Kelly T, O’Halloran J, Oxbrough A (2013) The importance of young plantation forest habitat and forest road-verges for ground-dwelling spider diversity. In: Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 2013. JSTOR, pp 259–271

  49. Garman SL, Mayo JH, Cissel JH, District BRR (2001) Response of ground-dwelling vertebrates to thinning young stands: the young stand thinning and diversity study. Department of Forest Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis

    Google Scholar 

  50. Gittings T, O’Halloran J, Kelly T, Giller PS (2006) The contribution of open spaces to the maintenance of hoverfly (Diptera, Syrphidae) biodiversity in Irish plantation forests. For Ecol Manag 237:290–300

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Gunnarsson B, Nittérus K, Wirdenäs P (2004) Effects of logging residue removal on ground-active beetles in temperate forests. For Ecol Manag 201:229–239

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Haines-Young R, Potschin M (2010) The links between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being. Ecosyst Ecol: A New Synth, pp 110–139

  53. Haines-Young RH, Barr C, Black H, Briggs D, Bunce R, Clarke R, Cooper A, Dawson F, Firbank L, Fuller R (2000) Accounting for nature: assessing habitats in the UK countryside, Countryside Survey 2000 and Northern Ireland Countryside Survey 2000, CS2000 Report

  54. Halaj J, Ross DW, Moldenke AR (2000) Importance of habitat structure to the arthropod food-web in Douglas-fir canopies. Oikos 90:139–152

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Hansson L (2001) Traditional management of forests: plant and bird community responses to alternative restoration of oak–hazel woodland in Sweden. Biodivers Conserv 10:1865–1873

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Hartley MJ (2002) Rationale and methods for conserving biodiversity in plantation forests. For Ecol Manag 155:81–95

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Hopkins A, Holz B (2006) Grassland for agriculture and nature conservation: production, quality and multi-functionality. Agron Res 4:3–20

    Google Scholar 

  58. Horgan T, Keane M, Mccarthy R, Lally M, Thompson D, O’Carroll J (2003) A guide to forest tree species selection and silviculture in Ireland. National Council for Forest Research and Development (COFORD), Dublin

    Google Scholar 

  59. Hoyne S, Thomas A (2001) Forest residues: harvesting, storage and fuel value. Coford

  60. Huber C, Schulze C, Baumgarten M (2007) The effect of femel-and small scale clear-cutting on ground dwelling spider communities in a Norway spruce forest in Southern Germany. Biodivers Conserv 16:3653–3680

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Humphrey J, Davey S, Peace A, Ferris R, Harding K (2002a) Lichens and bryophyte communities of planted and semi-natural forests in Britain: the influence of site type, stand structure and deadwood. Biol Conserv 107:165–180

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Humphrey J, Ferris R, Jukes M, Peace A (2002b) The potential contribution of conifer plantations to the UK biodiversity action plan. Trans Proc Bot Soc Edinb Bot Soc Edinb Trans 54:49–62

    Google Scholar 

  63. Iremonger S, Gittings T, Smith G, Wilson M, Oxbrough A, Coote L, Pithon J, O’Donoghue S, Mckee A, O’Halloran J (2006) Investigation of experimental methods to enhance biodiversity in plantation forests. Bioforest Proj 3

  64. Irwin S, Kelly DL, Kelly TC, Mitchell FJ, Coote L, Oxbrough A, Wilson MW, Martin RD, Moore K, Sweeney O (2013) Do Irish forests provide habitat for species of conservation concern? In: Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, JSTOR, pp. 273–279

  65. Irwin S, Pedley SM, Coote L, Dietzsch AC, Wilson MW, Oxbrough A, Sweeney O, Moore KM, Martin R, Kelly DL (2014) The value of plantation forests for plant, invertebrate and bird diversity and the potential for cross-taxon surrogacy. Biodivers Conserv 23:697–714

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Joyce PM (2002) Establishing broadleaves. Coford Connects Dublin, Coford, Dublin

    Google Scholar 

  67. Joyce PM, O’Carroll N (2002) Sitka spruce in Ireland. National Council for Forest Research and Development, COFORD, Dublin

  68. Kajak A, Kupryjanowicz J, Petrov P (2000) Long term changes in spider (Araneae) communities in natural and drained fens in the Biebrza River Valley. Ecology (Bratislava) 19:55–64

    Google Scholar 

  69. Kalies E, Chambers C, Covington W (2010) Wildlife responses to thinning and burning treatments in southwestern conifer forests: a meta-analysis. For Ecol Manag 259:333–342

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Kelly DL (2005) Woodland on the western fringe: Irish oak wood diversity and the challenges of conservation. Trans Proc Bot Soc Edinb Bot Soc Edinb Trans 57:21–40

    Google Scholar 

  71. Kelly TC (2008) The origin of the avifauna of Ireland. Irish Nat J 29:97–107

    Google Scholar 

  72. Kent T, Kofman PD, Coates E (2011) Harvesting wood for energy cost-effective woodfuel supply chains in Irish forestry. Coford, Dublin

    Google Scholar 

  73. Lachance D, Lavoie C (2004) Vegetation of Sphagnum bogs in highly disturbed landscapes: relative influence of abiotic and anthropogenic factors. Appl Veg Sci 7:183–192

    Google Scholar 

  74. Lachance D, Lavoie C, Desrochers A (2005) The impact of peatland afforestation on plant and bird diversity in southeastern Québec. Ecoscience 12:161–171

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Laine J, Vasander H, Sallantaus T (1995) Ecological effects of peatland drainage for forestry. Environ Rev 3:286–303

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Lavoie C, Grosvernier P, Girard M, Marcoux K (2003) Spontaneous revegetation of mined peatlands: an useful restoration tool? Wetl Ecol Manag 11:97–107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Lindenmayer D, Hobbs R (2004) Fauna conservation in Australian plantation forests—a review. Biol Conserv 119:151–168

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Lindenmayer D, Franklin J, Fischer J (2006) General management principles and a checklist of strategies to guide forest biodiversity conservation. Biol Conserv 131:433–445

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Mason WL, Kerr G, Simpson J (1999) What is continuous cover forestry?. Forestry Commission Edinburgh, Edinburgh

    Google Scholar 

  80. McEvoy P, Flexen M, McAdam J (2006) The effects of livestock grazing on ground flora in broadleaf woodlands in Northern Ireland. For Ecol Manag 225:39–50

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Mcmahon BJ, Purvis G, Whelan J (2008) The influence of habitat heterogeneity on bird diversity in Irish farmland. In: Biology and Environment: proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 2008. JSTOR, pp. 1–8

  82. Mitchell F (2000) The development of Ireland’s tree cover over the millennia. Irish For 57:38–46

    Google Scholar 

  83. Moles R, Breen J (1995) Long-term change within lowland farmland bird communities in relation to field boundary attributes. In: Biology and environment: proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, JSTOR, pp. 203–215

  84. Moles R, Breen J, O’Regan B (2005) A pilot scale long-term experimental study on the effects of grazing and gap creation on burren grassland dynamics: implications for conservation. In: Biology and environment: proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, JSTOR, pp. 15–32

  85. Mullen K, Fahy O, Gormally M (2003) Ground flora and associated arthropod communities of forest road edges in Connemara, Ireland. Biodivers Conserv 12:87–101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Nadeau P, Majka CG, Moreau G (2015) Short-term response of coleopteran assemblages to thinning-induced differences in dead wood volumes. For Ecol Manag 336:44–51

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Newmaster SG, Bell FW, Roosenboom CR, Cole HA, Towill WD (2006) Restoration of floral diversity through plantations on abandoned agricultural land. Can J For Res 36:1218–1235

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. O’Halloran J, Walsh P, Giller P, Kelly T (2002) Forestry and bird diversity in Ireland: a management and planning guide. COFORD, Dublin. The views and opinions expressed in this publication belong to the authors alone and do not necessarily reflect those of COFORD. Cover photograph: Sparrowhawk on nest. Photographs by Richard Mills. ii, 3

  89. O’Mahony D, O’Reilly C, Turner P (2006) National pine marten survey of Ireland 2005. Coford Connects Environ 7:1–8

    Google Scholar 

  90. O’Mara F (2008) Country pasture/forage resource profile. http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Counprof/Ireland/Ireland.htmTeagasc. Accessed 07 October 2015

  91. Oxbrough AG, Gittings T, O’Halloran J, Giller PS, Smith GF (2005) Structural indicators of spider communities across the forest plantation cycle. For Ecol Manag 212:171–183

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Oxbrough AG, Gittings T, O’Halloran J, Giller PS, Kelly TC (2006a) The influence of open space on ground-dwelling spider assemblages within plantation forests. For Ecol Manag 237:404–417

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Oxbrough AG, Gittings T, O’Halloran J, Giller PS, Kelly TC (2006b) The initial effects of afforestation on the ground-dwelling spider fauna of Irish peatlands and grasslands. For Ecol Manag 237:478–491

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Oxbrough AG, Gittings T, O’Halloran J, Giller PS, Kelly TC (2007) Biodiversity of the ground-dwelling spider fauna of afforestation habitats. Agric Ecosyst Environ 120:433–441

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Oxbrough A, French V, Irwin S, Kelly TC, Smiddy P, O’Halloran J (2012) Can mixed species stands enhance arthropod diversity in plantation forests? For Ecol Manag 270:11–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Oxbrough A, Irwin S, Wilson M, O’Halloran J (2014) Mechanisms and predictors of ecological change in managed forests: a selection of papers from the second international conference on biodiversity in forest ecosystems and landscapes. For Ecol Manag 321:1–4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Parr S, O’donovan G, Ward S, Finn JA (2009) Vegetation analysis of upland Burren grasslands of conservation interest. In: Biology and environment: proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, JSTOR, pp. 11–33

  98. Pawson S, Brockerhoff E, Norton D, Didham R (2006) Clear-fell harvest impacts on biodiversity: past research and the search for harvest size thresholds. Can J For Res 36:1035–1046

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Pawson SM, Brockerhoff EG, Meenken ED, Didham RK (2008) Non-native plantation forests as alternative habitat for native forest beetles in a heavily modified landscape. Biodivers Conserv 17:1127–1148

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Pedley SM, Martin RD, Oxbrough A, Irwin S, Kelly TC, O’Halloran J (2014) Commercial spruce plantations support a limited canopy fauna: evidence from a multi taxa comparison of native and plantation forests. For Ecol Manag 314:172–182

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Perrin PM, Daly OH (2010) A provisional inventory of ancient and long-established woodland in Ireland, Irish Wildlife Manuals, No. 46. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland

  102. Perrin PM, Kelly DL, Mitchell FJ (2006) Long-term deer exclusion in yew-wood and oakwood habitats in southwest Ireland: natural regeneration and stand dynamics. For Ecol Manag 236:356–367

    Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Perrin P, Martin J, Barron S, O’Neill F, McNutt K, Delaney A (2008) National survey of native woodlands 2003–2008. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Dublin

    Google Scholar 

  104. Perrin PM, Mitchell FJ, Kelly DL (2011) Long-term deer exclusion in yew-wood and oakwood habitats in southwest Ireland: changes in ground flora and species diversity. For Ecol Manage 262:2328–2337

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Philips H (2011) All Ireland roundwood production forecast 2011–2028. COFORD, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Dublin, Ireland

  106. Pithon J, Moles R, O’Halloran J (2005) The influence of coniferous afforestation on lowland farmland bird communities in Ireland: different seasons and landscape contexts. Landsc Urban Plan 71:91–103

    Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Preece R, Coxon P, Robinson J (1986) New biostratigraphic evidence of the post-glacial colonization of Ireland and for Mesolithic forest disturbance. J Biogeogr 13:487–509

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Purchart L, Tuf IH, Hula V, Suchomel J (2013) Arthropod assemblages in Norway spruce monocultures during a forest cycle—a multi-taxa approach. For Ecol Manag 306:42–51

    Article  Google Scholar 

  109. Quine CP, Fuller RJ, Smith KW, Grice PV (2007) Stand management: a threat or opportunity for birds in British woodland? Ibis 149:161–174

    Article  Google Scholar 

  110. Rainio J, Niemelä J (2003) Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as bioindicators. Biodivers Conserv 12:487–506

    Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Reidsma P, Tekelenburg T, van den Berg M, Alkemade R (2006) Impacts of land-use change on biodiversity: an assessment of agricultural biodiversity in the European Union. Agric Ecosyst Environ 114:86–102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Renou F, Egan T, Wilson D (2006) Tomorrow’s landscapes: studies in the after-uses of industrial cutaway peatlands in Ireland. Suo 57:97–107

    Google Scholar 

  113. Renou-Wilson F, Byrne KA (2015) Irish peatland forests: lessons from the past and pathways to a sustainable future. Restor Boreal Temp For 13:321

    Google Scholar 

  114. Roberts MR, Zhu L (2002) Early response of the herbaceous layer to harvesting in a mixed coniferous–deciduous forest in New Brunswick, Canada. For Ecol Manag 155:17–31

    Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Rochefort L, Campeau S, Parkyn L, Stoneman R, Ingram H (1997) Rehabilitation work on post-harvested bogs in South Eastern Canada. Conserv Peatl: 287–294

  116. Rochefort L, Quinty F, Campeau S, Johnson K, Malterer T (2003) North American approach to the restoration of Sphagnum dominated peatlands. Wetl Ecol Manag 11:3–20

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  117. Rosenvald R, Lohmus A (2008) For what, when, and where is green-tree retention better than clear-cutting? A review of the biodiversity aspects. For Ecol Manag 255:1–15

    Article  Google Scholar 

  118. Scozzafava S, de Sanctis A (2006) Exploring the effects of land abandonment on habitat structures and on habitat suitability for three passerine species in a highland area of Central Italy. Landsc Urban Plan 75:23–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  119. Smith G, Gittings T, Wilson M, Oxbrough A, Iremonger S, O’Halloran J, Kelly D, O’Sullivan A, O’Donoghue S, McKee A (2006) Biodiversity assessment of afforestation sites. Report prepared for the COFORD and EPA, Dublin

    Google Scholar 

  120. Smith GF, Iremonger S, Kelly DL, O’Donoghue S, Mitchell FJ (2007) Enhancing vegetation diversity in glades, rides and roads in plantation forests. Biol Conserv 136:283–294

    Article  Google Scholar 

  121. Smith GF, Gittings T, Wilson M, French L, Oxbrough A, O’donoghue S, O’halloran J, Kelly DL, Mitchell FJ, Kelly T (2009) Identifying practical indicators of biodiversity for stand-level management of plantation forests. Springer, New York

    Google Scholar 

  122. Snow DW, Perrins CM, Hillcoat B, Gillmor R, Roselaar C (1997) The birds of the Western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  123. Sottocornola M, Laine A, Kiely G, Byrne KA, Tuittila E-S (2009) Vegetation and environmental variation in an Atlantic blanket bog in South-western Ireland. Plant Ecol 203:69–81

    Article  Google Scholar 

  124. Stephens S, Wagner MR (2007) Forest plantations and biodiversity: a fresh perspective. J For 105:307–313

    Google Scholar 

  125. Stránská M (2004) Successional dynamics of Cynosurus pasture after abandonment in Podkrkonoší. Plant Soil Environ 50:364–370

    Google Scholar 

  126. Suzuki N, Hayes JP (2003) Effects of thinning on small mammals in Oregon coastal forests. J Wildl Manag 67:352–371

    Article  Google Scholar 

  127. Sweeney OF, Wilson MW, Irwin S, Kelly TC, O’Halloran J (2010a) The influence of a native tree species mix component on bird communities in non-native coniferous plantations in Ireland. Bird Study 57:483–494

    Article  Google Scholar 

  128. Sweeney OFM, Martin RD, Irwin S, Kelly TC, O’Halloran J, Wilson MW, McEvoy PM (2010b) A lack of large-diameter logs and snags characterises dead wood patterns in Irish forests. For Ecol Manag 259:2056–2064

    Article  Google Scholar 

  129. Sweeney OFM, Wilson MW, Irwin S, Kelly TC, O’Halloran J (2010c) Are bird density, species richness and community structure similar between native woodlands and non-native plantations in an area with a generalist bird fauna? Biodivers Conserv 19:2329–2342

    Article  Google Scholar 

  130. Taylor RG, Fortson JC (1991) Optimum plantation planting density and rotation age based on financial risk and return. For Sci 37:886–902

    Google Scholar 

  131. Teangana D, Reilly S, Montgomery W, Rochford J (2000) Distribution and status of the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) and grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Ireland. Mamm Rev 30:45–56

    Article  Google Scholar 

  132. Usher MB (1992) Management and diversity of arthropods in Calluna heathland. Biodivers Conserv 1:63–79

    Article  Google Scholar 

  133. Verschuyl J, Riffell S, Miller D, Wigley TB (2011) Biodiversity response to intensive biomass production from forest thinning in North American forests–a meta-analysis. For Ecol Manage 261:221–232

    Article  Google Scholar 

  134. Waddell J (1998) The prehistoric archaeology of Ireland. Galway University Press, Galway

    Google Scholar 

  135. Warriner MD, Nebeker TE, Leininger TD, Meadows JS (2002) The effects of thinning on beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cerambycidae) in bottomland hardwood forests. In: Proceedings of the eleventh biennial southern silvicultural research conference, General Technical Report SRS-48. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, pp. 569–573

  136. Wiezik M, Svitok M, Dovčiak M (2007) Conifer introductions decrease richness and alter composition of litter-dwelling beetles (Coleoptera) in Carpathian oak forests. For Ecol Manag 247:61–71

    Article  Google Scholar 

  137. Wilcove DS (1989) Protecting biodiversity in multiple-use lands: lessons from the US Forest Service. Trends Ecol Evol 4:385–388

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  138. Wilson B, Wilson L (2001) An economic perspective on clearcut harvesting. For Chron 77:467–473

    Article  Google Scholar 

  139. Wilson M, Gittings T, O’halloran J, Smith G, Oxbrough A, O’donoghue S, French L, Giller P, Iremonger S, Pithon J (2005) Forestry and biodiversity in Ireland and a case study of the Hen Harrier (Circus cyaneus): bioforest project. Forest research and development in Ireland 2004-Underpinning industry development. Proceedings of the COFORD conference, 20–21, 2005, p. 35

  140. Wilson MW, Pithon J, Gittings T, Kelly TC, Giller PS, O’Halloran J (2006) Effects of growth stage and tree species composition on breeding bird assemblages of plantation forests. Bird Study 53:225–236

    Article  Google Scholar 

  141. Wilson MW, Irwin S, Norriss DW, Newton SF, Collins K, Kelly TC, O’Halloran J (2009) The importance of pre-thicket conifer plantations for nesting Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus in Ireland. Ibis 151:332–343

    Article  Google Scholar 

  142. Wilson MW, Gittings T, Kelly TC, O’Halloran J (2010) The importance of non-crop vegetation for bird diversity in Sitka spruce plantations in Ireland. Bird Study 57:116–120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  143. Wilson MW, Gittings T, Pithon J, Kelly TC, Irwin S, O’halloran (2012) Journal of Bird diversity of afforestation habitats in Ireland: current trends and likely impacts. In: Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, JSTOR, pp. 55–68

  144. Yi H (2007) Effect of thinning on flying insect communities using window traps in young Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests in the Pacific Northwestern America. J Plant Biol 50:190–197

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This study was undertaken as part of the ‘ECOVALUE’ project at University College Cork and University College Dublin, which was funded by COFORD, the Department of Argiculture, Food and the Marine in Ireland. Special thanks to the ‘PLANFORBIO’ research team from University College Cork who's work contributed greatly to this review. This paper benefited greatly from input of two anonymous reviewers.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Cormac J. O’Callaghan.

Additional information

This is part of the special issue on ‘Forest biodiversity and ecosystem services’.

Communicated by Eckehard Brockerhoff, Hervé Jactel and Ian Thompson.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

O’Callaghan, C.J., Irwin, S., Byrne, K.A. et al. The role of planted forests in the provision of habitat: an Irish perspective. Biodivers Conserv 26, 3103–3124 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1125-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Biodiversity
  • Forest generalist
  • Forest specialist
  • Habitat
  • Ireland
  • Plantation forests