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Table 1 Legal status of golden jackal in Europe

From: Legal implications of range expansions in a terrestrial carnivore: the case of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Europe

Country National status Habitats Directive Bern Convention
Albania Fully protected Basic regime
Austria Variable Annex V Basic regime
Belarus Unprotected Basic regime
Bosnia and Herzegovina Hunted Basic regime
Bulgaria Hunted Annex V Basic regime
Croatia Hunted Annex V Basic regime
Czech Republic Unprotected Annex V Basic regime
Estonia Unprotected Annex V Basic regime
Germany Fully protected Annex V Basic regime
Greece Unprotected Annex V Basic regime
Hungary Hunted Annex V Basic regime
Italy Fully protected Annex V Basic regime
Kosovo Hunted
Latvia Hunted Annex V Basic regime
Lithuania Hunted Annex V Basic regime
FYR Macedonia Fully protected Basic regime
Moldova Unknown Basic regime
Montenegro Hunted Basic regime
Poland Fully protected Annex V Basic regime
Romania Hunted Annex V Basic regime
Serbia Hunted Basic regime
Slovakia Hunted Annex V Basic regime
Slovenia Hunted Annex V Basic regime
Switzerland Fully protected Basic regime
Turkey Variable Basic regime
Ukraine Hunted Basic regime
  1. National legislation ‘fully protected’ indicates jackals may only be killed or captured in exceptional cases, ‘hunted’ indicates jackals may be killed in accordance with hunting legislation, ‘unprotected’ indicates killing jackals is not forbidden nor otherwise regulated or restricted, ‘variable’ indicates jackals’ status varies from one part of the country to the next, ‘unknown’ indicates we were unable to verify legal status. Habitats Directive ‘Annex V’ indicates this regime applies to jackals, ‘–’ indicates the Directive does not apply. Bern Convention ‘basic regime’ indicates basic provisions (and not Appendix II or III) apply to jackals, ‘–’ indicates the Convention does not apply