Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

An economic analysis of reforestation with a native tree species: the case of Vietnamese farmers

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Biodiversity and Conservation Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The area of degraded forests in Vietnam is substantial, currently about 3.1 million ha of which about 1.7 million ha (55 %) were granted to individual farms for reforestation. However, the result of farmers’ reforestation efforts is limited. We aimed to examine the financial return, technical efficiency, and factors determining reforestation with a native tree species (Canarium album) by farms. Our results showed that reforestation with C. album is less financially profitable than that with an exotic tree species (Acacia mangium) as the alternative land use option. The subsidy from the government is found insufficient to compensate for the income losses of farmers participating in reforestation with the native tree species. Reforestation with C. album could be more successful if participating farmers were equipped to be more technically efficient. Finally, our findings clearly showed that the security of forest land property rights and the provision of forest extension services are among the determinants of participation in, and the subsequent success of reforestation with C. album.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. Kinh is the majority ethnic group of Vietnam with about 85 % share of the population (Khong, 1995).

  2. Other data on forest dynamics from the measurement of the sample plots are not described herein as this is beyond the scope of this paper.

  3. VND is the currency unit of Vietnam; in 2010 1 US$ equalled 19,500 VND.

  4. Test statistics = 0.786 < critical values at 5 % LOS = 3.84.

References

  • Angelsen A (2010) Policies for reduced deforestation and their impact on agricultural production. PNAS 107:19639–19644

    Article  CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ayanu YZ, Nguyen TT, Marohn C, Koellner T (2011) Crop production versus surfacewater regulation: assessing tradeoffs for land-use scenarios in the Tat Hamlet Watershed, Vietnam. Int J Biodivers Sci Ecosyst Serv Manag 7(3):231–244

    Google Scholar 

  • Boscolo M, van Dijk K, Savenije H (2010) Financing sustainable small-scale forestry: lessons from developing national forest financing strategies in Latin America. Forests 1:230–249

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bui, MB (2001) Impact of forest land policy change on household livelihoods: case study from Tu Ne Commune, Hoa Binh Province, Vietnam. Master thesis, Technological University of Dresden, Germany

  • Castella JC, Boissau S, Nguyen HT, Novosad P (2006) Impact of forestland allocation on land use in a mountainous province of Vietnam. Land Use Policy 23:147–160

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chazdon RL (2008) Beyond deforestation: restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands. Science 320:1458–1460

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Demurger S, Yang W (2006) Economic changes and afforestation incentives in rural China. Environ Dev Econ 11:629–649

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Department of Forestry (DOF) (2010) Forest areas and forest cover of Vietnam as of 31.12.2009, decision 2140/QD-BNN-TCLN, Hanoi (in Vietnamese)

  • Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) (2010) Global forest resources assessment 2010: country report Vietnam, Rome

  • General Statistics Office (GSO) (2011) Statistics, Hanoi. www.gso.gov.vn. Accessed 15 Aug 2011

  • GSO (2013) Statistics, Hanoi. www.gso.gov.vn. Accessed 22 May 2013

  • Hildebrandt P, Knoke T (2009) Optimizing the shares of native tree species in forest plantations with biased financial parameters. Ecol Econ 68:2825–2833

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hoang V, Nguyen TT (2013) Analyses of environmental efficiency variations: a nutrient balance approach. Ecol Econ 86:37–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Khong D (1995) Population and ethnic population in Vietnam. Social Sciences Publishing House, Hanoi (in Vietnamese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Knoke T, Stimm B, Ammer C, Moog M (2005) Mixed forests reconsidered: a forest economics contribution to the discussion on natural diversity. For Ecol Manage 213:102–116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Knoke T, Stimm B, Weber M (2008) Tropical farmers need non-destructive alternatives. Nature 452:934

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Koninck RD (1999) Deforestation in Vietnam. IDRC, Ottawa

    Google Scholar 

  • Lambini CK, Nguyen TT (2014) A comparative analysis of the effects of institutional property rights on forest livelihoods and forest conditions: evidence from Ghana and Vietnam. For Policy Econ 38:178–190

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Le QB, Park SJ, Vlek PLG (2010) Land use dynamic simulator (LUDAS): a multi-agent system model for simulating spatio-temporal dynamics of coupled human–landscape system 2. Scenario-based application for impact assessment of land-use policies. Ecol Inf 5:203–221

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Le QB, Seidl R, Scholz RW (2012) Feedback loops and types of adaptation in the modelling of land-use decisions in an agent-based simulation. Environ Model Softw 27–28:83–96

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • MARD (2007) Criteria and indicators for the evaluation of successful forest plantations and reforestation, decision no. 46/2007/QĐ-BNN, Hanoi (in Vietnamese)

  • McNamara S, Tinh DV, Erskine PD, Lamb D, Yates D, Brown S (2006) Rehabilitating degraded forest land in central Vietnam with mixed native species plantings. For Ecol Manage 233:358–365

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meyfroidt P, Lambin E (2008) Forest transition in Vietnam and its environmental impacts. Glob Change Biol 14:1319–1336

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meyfroidt P, Lambin E (2011) Global forest transition: prospects for an end to deforestation. Ann Rev Environ Resour 36:343–371

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) (2010) Forest resources assessment, Hanoi (in Vietnamese)

  • Nagendra H (2007) Drivers of reforestation in human-dominated forests. PNAS 104:15218–15223

    Article  CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nghiem N (2013) Biodiversity conservation attitudes and policy tools for promoting biodiversity in tropical planted forests. Biodivers Conserv 22:373–403

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nghiem N (2014) Optimal rotation age for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation in Vietnam. For Policy Econ 38:56–64

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen NB (2001) Forest management system in the Uplands of Vietnam: social, economic, and environmental perspective. Economy and Environment Program for South East Asia, Canada

    Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen TT (2002) Comparative analysis of mangrove-based farming systems in the North and the South of Vietnam. Master thesis, Technical University of Dresden, Germany

  • Nguyen TT (2008) The impact of land reform on farm households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam. Margraf Publishers, Weikersheim

    Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen TT (2009) Land reform and farm land rental market operation in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam. Econ Appl Inform 1:153–160

  • Nguyen TT (2012) Land reform and farm production in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam. Asian Econ J 26:43–61

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen TQ, Tran HN (2011) How Vietnam is prepared to meet legal requirements of timber export markets. Tropenbos International Vietnam, Hue

    Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen TT, Tenhunen J (2013) Review of integrated ecological-economic analyses for bioenergy plants under climate change at local scale. Int J Clim Change Strateg Manag 5(3):324–343

    Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen TT, Uibrig H (2007) Land allocation in mangrove areas of Vietnam: critical factors for sustainable management. In: Bauer S, Karki LB (eds) Farming & rural systems economics - issues and challenges in rural development: compendium of approaches for socio-economic and ecological development in developing countries, Margraf Publishers, pp 101–116

  • Nguyen TT, Bauer S, Uibrig H (2010) Land privatization and afforestation incentive of rural farms in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam. For Policy Econ 12:518–526

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen TT, Hoang VN, Seo B (2012) Cost and environmental efficiency of rice farms in South Korea. Agric Econ 43:367–376. doi:10.1111/j.1574-0862.2012.00589.x

    Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen TT, Pham VD, Tenhunen J (2013) Linking regional land use and payments for forest hydrological services: a case study of Hoa Binh Reservoir in Vietnam. Land Use Policy 33:130–140

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olschewski R, Benítez P (2005) Secondary forests as temporary carbon sinks? The economic impact of accounting methods on reforestation projects in the tropics. Ecol Econ 55:380–394

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pham VD, Tran HV (2011) Dynamics of regeneration in rehabilitated forest stands with native tree species. Forestry University of Vietnam, Hanoi (in Vietnamese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Sein CC, Mitlöhner R (2011) Acacia mangium wild: ecology and silviculture in Vietnam. CIFOR, Bogor

    Google Scholar 

  • Sikor T (2001) The allocation of forestry land in Vietnam: did it cause the expansion of forests in the Northwest? For Policy Econ 2:1–11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tran HV (2010) Construction of the planning and management schemes for evergreen and broadleaved forests in Vietnam. Scientific and Technological Report, Hanoi (in Vietnamese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Villamor GB, van Noordwijk M, Le QB, Lusiana B, Matthews R, Vlek PLG (2011) Diversity deficits in modelled landscape mosaics. Ecol Inf 6:73–82

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vu TH, Pham VD (2005) Report on results of reforestation studies in some northern provinces of Vietnam. Scientific and Technological Research, Hanoi (in Vietnamese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Vu DH, Pham VT, Pham TD, Ho VP, Nguyen TB, Ha MD, Nguyen TT (2005) Site management and productivity of Acacia auriculiformis plantations in South Vietnam. In: Nambiar EKS, Ranger J, Tiarks A, Toma T (eds) Site management and productivity in tropical plantation forests. CIFOR, Bogor, pp 121–137

    Google Scholar 

  • Vu QM, Le QB, Frossard E, Vlek PLG (2014) Socio-economic and biophysical determinants of land degradation in Vietnam: an integrated causal analysis at the national level. Land Use Policy 36:605–617

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wil DJ, Do DS, Trieu VH (2006) Forest rehabilitation in Vietnam: histories, realities, and future. CIFOR, Jakarta

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

Our deep gratitude goes to the farmers in the two provinces of Son La and Bac Kan of Vietnam who have been working with us for years. Generous support from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), the Forestry University, Vietnam (FUV), and the Projects TERRECO (DFGGRK 1565) and REGECON (01LA1101A) at the Bayreuth University, Germany are acknowledged. The authors thank Alexandra Bell and Daniela Kretz for their proofreading and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the earlier version.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Trung Thanh Nguyen.

Additional information

Communicated by David L. Hawksworth.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Nguyen, T.T., Koellner, T., Le, Q.B. et al. An economic analysis of reforestation with a native tree species: the case of Vietnamese farmers. Biodivers Conserv 23, 811–830 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-014-0635-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-014-0635-4

Keywords

Navigation