Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 22, Issue 8, pp 1691–1702 | Cite as

Using historical accounts to set conservation baselines: the case of Lynx species in Spain

  • Miguel ClaveroEmail author
  • Miguel Delibes
Original Paper


The knowledge of the historical range of organisms is necessary to understand distribution dynamics and their drivers as well as to set reference conditions and conservation goals. We reviewed written sources documenting the presence of lynxes in Spain between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, trying to infer whether Lynx records referred to the Iberian (Lynx pardinus) or the Eurasian (Lynx lynx) species. We compiled 151 spatially specific, non-redundant Lynx records, dating between 1572 and 1897. Records appeared split in two neatly separated areas, North and South. Arguably, all historical records from the South area correspond to Iberian lynx, since almost all of them fall within the estimated range of the species in the 1950s. This suggests that the core distribution area of the species remained relatively stable for centuries, until the second half of the twentieth century. The reported range in the 1950s is thus an appropriate scenario to set conservation goals for this critically endangered species. The North area extended from Galicia and northern Portugal to the Mediterranean, mainly occupying the Atlantic-climate area of northern Iberia. Reported direct measurements and the accumulation of indirect evidences suggest that most, if not all, northern Lynx records refer to the Eurasian lynx, which had been previously detected in archaeological sites of the area. This species was apparently present in the Iberian Peninsula until the early-nineteenth century. Our results provide an objective, baseline distribution of Lynx species in Spain useful to guide conservation efforts both at the Iberian and European levels.


Lynx pardinus Lynx lynx Historical ecology Species declines Human–predator conflict Iberian Peninsula 



Adolfo Delibes, José María Fernández, Alberto Hernando, Miguel Moreno, Javier Naves, Nerea Ruíz de Azua and Juan Pablo Torrente gently sent us rare published papers or other documents about old records of lynxes. Alejandro Rodríguez, Javier Calzada and two anonymous reviewers made useful suggestions on early drafts of this work. We thank Néstor Fernández for producing the map of lynx records.

Supplementary material

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Biología de la ConservaciónEstación Biológica de Doñana-CSICSevillaSpain

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