Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 19, Issue 13, pp 3635–3654 | Cite as

Home gardens: neglected hotspots of agro-biodiversity and cultural diversity

Review Paper

Abstract

Over the last two decades, the importance of conserving genetic resources has received increasing attention. In this context the role of home gardens as repositories of biological diversity has been acknowledged but still a comprehensive, interdisciplinary investigation of their agro-biodiversity is lacking. Home gardens, whether found in rural or urban areas, are characterized by a structural complexity and multifunctionality which enables the provision of different benefits to ecosystems and people. Studies carried out in various countries demonstrate that high levels of inter- and intra-specific plant genetic diversity, especially in terms of traditional crop varieties and landraces, are preserved in home gardens. Families engage in food production for subsistence or small-scale marketing and the variety of crops and wild plants provides nutritional benefits. At the same time, home gardens are important social and cultural spaces where knowledge related to agricultural practices is transmitted and through which households may improve their income and livelihoods. The present article summarizes available literature on the biological and cultural significance of agro-biodiversity in home gardens. It discusses future constraints and opportunities in home garden research, in the prospect of defining and promoting their role in conservation of agricultural biodiversity and cultural heritage.

Keywords

Home gardens Agro-ecosystems In situ conservation Agro-biodiversity Landraces 

References

  1. Adhikari A, Singh D, Suwal R et al. (2004) The role of gender in the home garden management and benefit-sharing from home gardens in different production system of Nepal. In: Gautam R, B. Sthapit, and Shrestha P (eds) Proceedings of workshop “Enhancing the contribution of home garden to on-farm management of plant genetic resources and to improve the livelihoods of Nepalese farmers: lessons learned and policy implications”. Bioversity international and Swiss agency for development and cooperation (SDC), pp 84–98Google Scholar
  2. Altieri MA, Merrick LC (1987) In situ conservation of crop genetic resources through maintenance of traditional farming systems. Econ Bot 41:86–96Google Scholar
  3. Anderson EN (1993) Gardens in tropical America and tropical Asia. Biòtica Nueva Epoca 1:81–102Google Scholar
  4. Andonov S, Ivanovska S (2004) Let’s protect agrobiodiversity. Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, Skopje, MacedoniaGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnold JEM (1987) Economic considerations in agroforestry. In: Steppler HA, Nair PKR (eds) Agroforestry: a decade of development. International council for eesearch in agroforestry (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya, pp 173–190Google Scholar
  6. Azurdia C, Leiva M, Ayala H et al (2001) Contribution of home gardens to in situ conservation of plant genetic resources II. Alta Verapaz case. Working document. IPGRI-USAC, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  7. Bennett-Lartey SO, Markwei C, Ayernor GS et al. (2001) Contribution of home gardens to in situ conservation resources in farming systems in Ghana. A report of home garden surveys in Ghana. In: Watson JW, and Eyzaguirre PB (eds) Proceedings of the second international home garden workshop. Bioversity international, Rome, Italy, pp 83–96 Google Scholar
  8. Bhatt V, Farah L (2009) Urban design for food-security: thinking globally designing locally. In: Proceedings of the second international conference on landscape and urban horticulture. Department of agroenvironmental science and technology (DiSTA), Faculty of agriculture, University of Bologna, Italy, p 40Google Scholar
  9. Birol E, Bela G, Smale M (2005a) The role of home gardens in promoting multi-functional agriculture in Hungary. EuroChoices 3:14–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Birol E, Kontoleon A, Smale M (2005b) Farmer demand for agricultural biodiversity in Hungary’s transition economy: a choice experiment approach. In: Smale M (ed) Valuing crop biodiversity–on farm genetic resources and economic change. CABI publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp 119–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bradley L (2009) Community gardening: food production in the neighborhood. In: Proceedings of the second international conference on landscape and Urban horticulture. Department of agroenvironmental science and technology (DiSTA), Faculty of agriculture, University of Bologna, Italy, p 39Google Scholar
  12. Bravi R, Negri V, Porfiri O (2002) La salvaguardia della biodiversità e la produzione delle sementi di specie ortive. Sementi Elette 4:25–29Google Scholar
  13. Brown AHD, Marshall DR (1995) A basic sampling strategy: theory and practice in collecting plant genetic diversity technical guidelines. CABI publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp 75–91Google Scholar
  14. Brush S (2000) Ethnoecology, biodiversity and modernization in Andean potato agriculture. In: Minnis P (ed) Ethnobotany a reader. University of Oklahoma Press, Oklahoma, pp 283–306Google Scholar
  15. Brush S (2004) Farmers’ bounty locating crop diversity in the contemporary world. Yale University Press, New Haven, ConnecticutGoogle Scholar
  16. Brush S, Taylor E, Bellon M (1992) Technology adoption and biological diversity in Andean potato agriculture. J Dev Econ 39:365–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Callens K, Gallagher KD (2003) Incorporating nutrition in farmer field schools food, nutrition and agriculture. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  18. Castiñeiras L, Guzmàn FA, Duque MC et al (2007) AFLPs and morphological diversity of Phaseolus lunatus L in Cuban home gardens: approaches to recovering the lost ex situ collection. Biodivers Conserv 16:2847–2865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. CBD (1992) Convention on Biological Diversity. Secretariat of the convention on biological diversity, United Nations environment program. Available at www.biodiv.org/convention/articles.asp
  20. Ceccarelli S (1996) Specific adaptation and breeding for marginal conditions. Euphytica 77:205–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Coomes OT, Ban N (2004) Cultivated plant species diversity in home gardens of an Amazonian peasant village in northeastern Peru. Econ Bot 58:420–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Daniels GD, Kirkpatrick JB (2006) Does variation in garden characteristics influence the conservation of birds in suburbia? Biol Conserv 133:326–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Das T, Das AK (2005) Inventorying plant biodiversity in homegardens: a case study in Barak Valley, Assam, North East India. Curr Sci 89:155–163Google Scholar
  24. EC (2008) Commission Directive 2008/62/EC (20 June 2008) Official Journal of the European Union, L 162/13Google Scholar
  25. Engels J (2001) Home gardens–a genetic resource perspective. In: Watson JW, Eyzaguirre PB (eds) Proceedings of the second international home garden workshop. Bioversity international, Rome, Italy, pp 3–9Google Scholar
  26. Esquivel M, Knuepffer H, Hammer K (1992) Chapter 14. Inventory of the cultivated plants In: Hammer K, Esquivel M, Knuepffer H (eds) Origin, evolution and diversity of Cuban plant genetic resources, Gatersleben, Germany, pp 213–454Google Scholar
  27. Eyzaguirre P (2006) Agricultural biodiversity and how human culture is shaping it. In: Cernea M, Kassam A (eds) Researching the culture in agri-culture. CABI, Wallingford, UK, pp 264–284Google Scholar
  28. Eyzaguirre P, Linares O (2004) Introduction. In: Eyzaguirre P, Linares O (eds) Home gardens and agrobiodiversity. Smithsonian Books, Washington, pp 1–28Google Scholar
  29. Eyzaguirre P, Watson J (2001) Home gardens and agrobiodiversity: an overview across regions. In: Watson JW, Eyzaguirre PB (eds) Proceedings of the second international home garden workshop. Bioversity international, Rome, Italy, pp 10–13Google Scholar
  30. Feuillet C, Langridge P, Waugh R (2008) Cereal breeding takes a walk on the wild side. Trends Genet 24:24–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gaston KJ, Warren PH, Thompson K et al (2005) Urban domestic gardens (IV): the extent of the resource and its associated features. Biodivers Conserv 14:3327–3349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gladis T (2001) The neglected diversity of immigrant gardens in Germany—examples from Bonn. In: Proceedings of the second international home garden workshop. Bioversity international, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  33. Gliessman SR (1990a) Integrating trees into agriculture: the home garden agro-ecosystem as an example of agro-forestry in the tropics. In: Gliessman SR (ed) Agroecology: researching the ecological basis for sustainable agriculture. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 160–168Google Scholar
  34. Gliessman SR (1990b) Understanding the basis for sustainability for agriculture in the tropics: experiences in Latin America. In: Edwards CA, Lal R, Madden P, Miller RH, House G (eds) Sustainable agricultural systems. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida, pp 378–390Google Scholar
  35. Goddard MA, Dougill AJ, Benton TG (2009) Scaling up from gardens: biodiversity conservation in urban environments. Trends Ecol Evol 25:90–98CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. GSPC (2002) Global strategy for plant conservation. Secretariat of the convention on biological diversity, United Nations environment program. Available at http://www.cbd.int/gspc/strategy.shtml
  37. Guarino L, Hoogendijk M (2004) Microenvironments. In: Eyzaguirre P, Linares O (eds) Home gardens and agrobiodiversity. Smithsonian Books, Washington, pp 31–40Google Scholar
  38. Guijt I, Hinchcliffe F, Menyk M (1995) The hidden harvest: the value of wild resources in agricultural systems—a summary. International institute for environment and development (IIED). London (UK)Google Scholar
  39. Guzmàn FA, Ayala H, Azurdia C et al (2005) AFLP assessment of genetic diversity of Capsicum genetic resources in Guatemala: home gardens as an option for conservation. Crop Sci Soc Am 45:363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hammer K, Cifarelli S, Perrino P (1986) Collection of land-races of cultivated plants in South Italy, 1985. Kulturpflanze 34:261–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hammer K, Knüpffer H, Xhuveli L et al (1996) Estimating genetic erosion in landraces—two case studies. Genet Resour Crop Evol 43:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hammer K, Laghetti G, Perrino P (1997) Proposal to make the island of Linosa/Italy as a centre for on-farm conservation of plant genetic resources. Genet Resour Crop Evol 44:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hammer K, Laghetti G, Perrino P (1999) A checklist of the cultivated plants of Ustica (Italy). Genet Resour Crop Evol 46:95–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hammer K, Arrowsmith N, Gladis T (2004) Agrobiodiversity with emphasis on plant genetic resources. Naturwissenschaften 90:241–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. High C, Shackleton CM (2000) The comparative value of wild and domestic plants in home gardens of a South African rural village. Agrofor Syst 48:141–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hodgkin T (2001) Home gardens and the maintenance of genetic diversity. In: Watson JW, Eyzaguirre PB (eds) Proceedings of the second international home garden workshop. Bioversity international, Rome, Italy, pp 14–18Google Scholar
  47. Hoogerbrugge ID, Fresco LO (1993) Homegarden systems: agricultural characteristics and challenges gatekeeper Series no. 39. International institute for environment and development, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  48. Hughes CE, Govindarajulu R, Robertson A et al (2007) Serendipitous backyard hybridization and the origin of crops. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:14389–14394CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. IPGRI (1993) Diversity for development: the strategy of the international plant genetic resources institute. International plant genetic resource institute, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  50. ITPGRFA (2001) International treaty on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  51. Juma C (1989) Biological diversity and innovation: conserving and utilizing genetic resources in Kenya. African centre for technology studies, Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  52. Kassogue A, Dolo J, Ponsioen T (1990) Traditional soil and water conservation in the Dogon plateau Mali. Dryland networks programme, Paper no. 23, London, IIEDGoogle Scholar
  53. Kulpa W, Hanelt P (1981) Activities regarding collection and evaluation of Polish landraces. Kulturpflanze 29:81–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Laghetti G, Miceli F, Cifarelli S et al (2004) Collection of crop genetic resources in Italy. Plant Genet Resour Newsl 152:82–87Google Scholar
  55. Le Coeur D, Baudry J, Burel F et al (2002) Why and how we should study field boundary biodiversity in an agrarian landscape. Agric Ecosyst Environ 89:23–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leiva JM, Azurdia C, Ovando W et al. (2001) Contributions of home gardens to in situ conservation in traditional farming systems—Guatemalan component. In: Watson JW, and Eyzaguirre PB (eds) Proceedings of the second international home gardens workshop. Bioversity international, Rome, Italy, pp 56–72Google Scholar
  57. Linares OF (1996) Cultivating biological and cultural diversity: urban farming in Casamance, Senegal. Africa 66:104–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Louette D (2000) Traditional management of seed and genetic diversity: what is a landrace? In: Brush SB (ed) Genes in the field. IPGRI, Rome/IDRC. Ottawa/Lewis publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, pp 109–142Google Scholar
  59. Louette D, Smale M (2000) Farmers’ seed selection practices and traditional maize varieties in Cuzalapa, Mexico. Euphytica 113:25–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Marsh R (1998) Building on traditional gardening to improve household food security food, nutrition and agriculture No. 22. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  61. Marshall EJP, Moonen AC (2002) Field margins in northern Europe: their functions and interactions with agriculture. Agric Ecosyst Environ 89:5–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Maundu P (1987) The importance of gathered fruits and medicinal plants in Kakyuni and Kathama areas of Machakos. In: Wachiira KK (ed) Women’s use of off-farm and boundary lands: agroforestry potentials. International Centre of Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), Nairobi, pp 56–60Google Scholar
  63. Mazzucato A, Papa R, Bitocchi E et al (2008) Genetic diversity structure and marker-trait associations in a collection of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Italian landraces. Theor Appl Genet 116:657–669CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Mitchell R, Hanstad T (2004) Small homegarden plots and sustainable livelihoods for the poor. LSP Working paper no.11. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  65. Miura S, Osamu K, Susumu W (2003) Home gardening in urban poor communities of the Philippines. Int J Food Sci Nutr 54:77–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Morimoto Y, Maundu P, Kawase M et al (2006) RAPD polymorphism of the White-Flowered gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.) landraces and its wild relatives in Kenya. Genet Resour Crop Evol 53:963–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Müller GK, Bohorquez A, Quintero O et al (1989) Bericht über eine Reise in Kolumbien 1988 Zur Sammlung pflanzlicher genetischer Ressourcen. Kulturpflanze 37:373–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Negri V (2003) Landraces in central Italy: where and why they are conserved and perspectives for their on-farm conservation. Genet Resour Crop Evol 50:871–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Negri V (2005) Agrobiodiversity conservation in Europe: ethical issues. J Agric Environ Ethics 18:3–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Negri V (2009) Possible incentives to home garden maintenance: comparing possibilities and raising awareness among farmers. In: Proceedings of a workshop on crop genetic resources in European home gardens. Bioversity international, Rome, Italy, pp 72–80Google Scholar
  71. Negri V, Polegri L (2009) Genetic diversity in home gardens in Umbria a cowpea case study. In: Proceedings of a workshop on crop genetic resources in European home gardens. Bioversity international, Rome, Italy, pp 55–61Google Scholar
  72. Negri V, Tosti N (2002) Phaseolus genetic diversity maintained on-farm in central Italy. Genet Resour Crop Evol 49:511–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Negri V, Maxted N, Vetelainen M (2009) European landrace conservation: an introduction. In: Vetelainen M, Negri V, Maxted N (eds) Technical Bullettin n. X. European landraces: On-farm conservation, management and use. Bioversity international, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  74. Negri V, Castellini G, Tiranti B et al. (2010) Landraces are structured populations and should be maintained on farm. In: Proceedings of the 18th Eucarpia genetic resources section meeting, in pressGoogle Scholar
  75. Newton AC, Akar T, Baresel JP et al (2010) Cereal landraces for sustainable agriculture. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 30:237–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Niñez VK (1984) Household gardens: theoretical considerations on an old survival strategy. Report No. 1 Potatoes in food systems research series. International potato research centreGoogle Scholar
  77. Nowosielka D, Podyma W (2001) Collection missions in the territory of Poland during 1998–1999. In: Swiecicki W, Naganowska B, Wolko B (eds) Proceedings of the Eucarpia genetic resources section meeting: broad variation and precise characterisation. Bioversity international, Rome, Italy, pp 67–70Google Scholar
  78. Nunney L, Campbell KA (1993) Assessing minimum viable population size: demography meets population genetics. Trends Ecol Evol 8:234–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Odhav B, Beekrum S, Akula U et al (2007) Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of traditional leafy vegetables in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J Food Comp Anal 20:430–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Paoletti M (2001) Biodiversity in agroecosystems and bioindicators of environmental health. In: Shiyomi M, Koizumi H (eds) Structure and function in agroecosystems design and management advances in agroecology. CRC press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp 11–44Google Scholar
  81. Pavia R, Barbagiovanni I, Strada GD et al. (2009) Autochthonous fruit tree germplasm at risk of genetic erosion found in home gardens in the region of Latium (Italy). In: Proceedings of a workshop on crop genetic resources in European home gardens. Bioversity international, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  82. Perales HR, Brush SB (2005) Maize diversity and ethnolinguistic diversity in Chiapas, Mexico. Proc Natl Acad Sci 102:949–954CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Perrino P, Hammer K (1985) Collection of landraces of cultivated plants in South Italy 1984. Kulturpflanze 31:227–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Polegri L, Negri V (2010) Molecular markers for promoting agro-biodiversity conservation: a case study from Italy. How cowpea landraces were saved from extinction. Genet Resour Crop Evol 57:867–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Portis E, Acquadro A, Comino C et al (2004) Effect of farmers’ seed selection on genetic variation of a landrace population of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) grown in North-West Italy. Genet Resour Crop Evol 51:581–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Quiroz C, Gutiérrez M, Rodríguez D et al. (2001) Home gardens and in situ conservation of agrobiodiversity—Venezuelan component. In: Watson JW, and Eyzaguirre PB (eds) Proceedings of the second international home garden workshop. Bioversity international, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  87. Schneider J (2004) Toward an analysis of home garden cultures. On the use of sociocultural variables in home garden studies. In: Eyzaguirre PB, Linares O (eds) Home gardens and agrobiodiversity. Smithsonian books, Washington, pp 41–55Google Scholar
  88. Seck M (2009) Io mangio Wolof. SlowFood 43:42–44Google Scholar
  89. Seeth HT, Chachnov S, Surinov A (1998) Russian poverty: muddling through economic transition with garden plots. World Dev 26:1611–1623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Shrestha P, Gautam R, Rana RB et al (2001) Home gardens in Nepal: status and scope for research and development. In: Watson JW, Eyzaguirre PB (eds) Proceedings of the second international home garden workshop. Bioversity international, Rome, Italy, pp 105–118Google Scholar
  91. Silveri D (2007) Regional Government of Abruzzo Region, Italy. Personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  92. Smith RM, Thompson K, Hodgson JG et al (2006) Urban domestic gardens (IX): composition and richness of the vascular plant flora, and implications for native biodiversity. Biol Conserv 129:312–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Soemarwoto O, Soemarwoto I, Karyono et al. (1975) The Javanese home garden as an integrated ecosystem. Proceedings of an International congress on the human environment. Science council of Japan, Kyoto, Japan: 193-197Google Scholar
  94. Sommers P (1978) Traditional home gardens of selected Philippine households and their potential for improving human nutrition. Master thesis. University of the Philippines, Los Banos, The PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  95. Sordi M, Polegri L, Negri V (2008) Biodiversità di interesse agrario nel comprensorio del Lago Trasimeno. University of Perugia/Trasimeno Lake Regional park, Italy. ISBN: 88-87652-13-9-978-88-87652-13-0-3736-203987, also available at http://www.agr.unipg.it/dbvba/biodiversitatrasimeno.pdf
  96. Soulé ME (1987) Viable Populations for Conservation. Cambridge University press, Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Stoler A (1975) Garden use and household consumption pattern in a Javanese village PhD thesis. Department of anthropology, Columbia University, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  98. Sunwar S, Thornström CG, Subedi A et al (2006) Home gardens in western Nepal: opportunities and challenges for on-farm management of agrobiodiversity. J Biodiver Conserv 15:4211–4238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tanksley SD, McCouch SR (1997) Seed banks and molecular maps: unlocking genetic potential from the wild. Science 277:1063–1066CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Tei F, Benincasa P, Farneselli M et al. (2009) Allotment gardens for senior citizens in Italy: current status and technical proposals. Proceedings of the second international conference on landscape and urban horticulture. Department of agroenvironmental science and technology (DiSTA), Faculty of agriculture, University of Bologna, Italy: 41Google Scholar
  101. Tilman D (1999) Global environmental impacts of agricultural expansion: the need for sustainable and efficient practices. Proc Natl Acad Sci 96:1857–1861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tilman D (2000) Causes, consequences and ethics of biodiversity. Nature 405:208–211CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Tiranti B, Negri V (2007) Selective micro-environmental effects play a role in shaping genetic diversity and structure in a Phaseolus vulgaris L. landrace: implications for on-farm conservation. Molecular Ecology 16:4942–4955CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Tonutti S (2008) Vecchie varietà: tradizione, passione e cura. In: Miceli F, Costantini E (eds) La biodiversità coltivata, Storie di persone, piante e agricoltura tradizionale tra Friuli e Carinzia. Editrice Universitaria Udinese, Udine, Italy, pp 153–163Google Scholar
  105. Tosti N, Negri V (2005) On-going on-farm microevolutionary processes in neighbouring cowpea landraces revealed by molecular markers. Theor Appl Genet 110:1275–1283CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Trinh LN, Hue NN, De NN et al (2001) Role of home gardens in the conservation of plant genetic resources in Vietnam. In: Watson JW, Eyzaguirre PB (eds) Proceedings of the second international home garden workshop. Bioversity international, Rome, Italy, pp 97–104Google Scholar
  107. Van Veenhuizen R (2006) Introduction. In: Van Veenhuizen R (ed) Cities farming for the future—urban agriculture for green and productive cities. RUAF Foundation, International development research centre (IDRC) and international institute of rural reconstruction (IIRR), The Philippines, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  108. Vasey DE (1985) Household gardens and their niche in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Food Nut Bulletin 7:37–47Google Scholar
  109. Viljoen A, Bohn K, Tomkins M et al. (2009) Places for people, places for plants: evolving thoughts on continuous productive urban landscapes. Proceedings of the second international conference on landscape and urban horticulture. Department of agroenvironmental science and technology (DiSTA), Faculty of agriculture, University of Bologna, Italy: 38Google Scholar
  110. Vogl-Lukasser B, Vogl C (2004) Ethnobotanical research in homegardens of small farmers in the alpine region of Osttirol (Austria): an example for bridges built and building bridges. Ethnobotany Res Appl 2:111–137Google Scholar
  111. Yongneng F, Huijun G, Aiguo C et al (2006) Household differentiation and on-farm conservation of biodiversity by indigenous households in Xishuangbanna, China. Biodivers Conserv 15:2687–2703CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bioversity International, Office of the AmericasCaliColombia
  2. 2.Bioversity InternationalMaccarese, RomeItaly
  3. 3.Department of Applied BiologyUniversity of PerugiaPerugiaItaly

Personalised recommendations