Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 17, Issue 11, pp 2671–2690 | Cite as

Woody plants diversity, floristic composition and land use history in the Amazonian rain forests of Madidi National Park, Bolivia

Original Paper

Abstract

A floristic inventory of woody plants was carried out to analyse the relationships between floristic similarity and geographical distance, and to compare the effect of land use history on the floristic composition between sites. Three lowland and two submontane sites were studied in Madidi, Bolivia. In one site, there is evidence of an Inca ruin. A total of 877 species and 12,822 individuals of woody plants with a diameter at breast height ≥2.5 cm were recorded in 44 0.1–ha plots. Fisher’s Alpha index values were slightly higher for the lowlands than for the submontane. Floristic similarity was higher within sites than between sites as measured by both Sørensen and Steinhaus indexes. The fact that the 30 most important species per site (totalling 94 species) accounted for 61.7% of total individuals, support the hypothesis that Amazonian plant communities are dominated by a limited set of species, genera and families. On the other hand, 18 out of the 94 species were reported in a single site, suggesting that some species are patchy in distribution and may be environmentally determined. Both the oligarchy and environmental-determinism hypotheses can be complementary in order to understand floristic patterns of this region. The Ruins submontane site is floristically the most distinct, and past human disturbance is likely to be the main reason. Since species diversity (ranging from 53 to 122 species per plot) and density (ranging from 157 to 503 per plot) are highly variable in Madidi, to characterize the diversity of a site, it is necessary to quantify an average of 10 0.1-ha plots in a relatively small geographical area.

Keywords

Beta diversity Floristic patterns Lianas Past human disturbance Plant communities Sampling protocols Southwest Amazonia Tropical rain forest Tropical trees 

References

  1. Araujo-Murakami A, Bascopé F, Cardona-Peña V, De la Quintana D, Fuentes A, Jørgensen P, Maldonado C, Miranda T, Paniagua-Zambrana N, Seidel R (2005a) Composición florística y estructura del bosque amazónico preandino en el sector del Arroyo Negro, Parque Nacional Madidi, Bolivia. Ecol Boliv 40(3):281–303Google Scholar
  2. Araujo-Murakami A, Cardona-Peña V, De la Quintana D, Fuentes A, Jørgensen P, Maldonado C, Miranda T, Paniagua-Zambrana N, Seidel R (2005b) Estructura y diversidad de plantas leñosas en un bosque amazónico preandino en el sector del río Quendeque, Parque Nacional Madidi, Bolivia. Ecol Boliv 40(3):304–324Google Scholar
  3. Araujo-Murakami A, Jørgensen P, Maldonado C, Paniagua-Zambrana N (2005c) Composición florística y estructura del bosque de ceja de monte en Yungas, sector de Tambo Quemado-Pelechuco, Bolivia. Ecol Boliv 40(3):325–338Google Scholar
  4. Armentia N (1897) Límites de Bolivia con el Perú por la parte de Caupolican. Oficina nacional de inmigración, estadística y propaganda geográfica, La PazGoogle Scholar
  5. Balée W, Campbell DG (1990) Evidence for the successional status of liana forest (Xingu River Basin, Amazonian Brazil). Biotropica 22:36–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burnham RJ (2004) Alpha and beta diversity of lianas in Yasuní, Ecuador. For Ecol Manage 190:43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chazdon RL (2003) Tropical forest recovery: legacies of human impact and natural disturbances. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 6:51–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark DB, Palmer MW, Clark DA (1999) Edaphic factors and the landscape-scale distributions of tropical rain forest trees. Ecology 80:2662–2675Google Scholar
  9. Clinebell RR II, Phillips O, Gentry AH, Stark N, Zuuring H (1995) Prediction of neotropical tree and liana species richness from soil and climatic data. Biodivers Conserv 4:56–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Condit R, Foster RB, Hubbell SP, Sukumar R, Leigh EG, Manokaran N, Loo de Lao S, LaFrankie JV, Ashton PS (1998) Assessing forest diversity on small plots: calibration using species-individual curves from 50-ha plots. In: Dallmeier F, Comiskey JA (eds) Forest biodiversity research, monitoring and modeling. MAB series, vol 20. UNESCO, Paris, pp 247–268Google Scholar
  11. Curtis JT, McIntosh RP (1951) An upland forest continuum in the prairie-forest border region of Wisconsin. Ecology 32:476–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DeWalt SJ, Schnitzer SA, Denslow JS (2000) Density and diversity of lianas along a chronosequence in a central Panamanian lowland forest. J Trop Ecol 16:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Duque AJ, Sánchez M, Cavelier J, Duivenvoorden JF (2002) Different floristic patterns of woody understorey and canopy plants in Colombian Amazonia. J Trop Ecol 18:499–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Duivenvoorden JF (1995) Tree species composition and rain forest-environment relationships in the middle Caquetá area, Colombia, NW Amazonia. Vegetatio 120:91–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fine PVA, Daly DC, Villa G, Mesones I, Cameron KM (2005) The contribution of edaphic heterogeneity to the evolution and diversity of Burseraceae trees in the western Amazon. Evolution 59:1464–1478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Fisher RA, Corbet AS, Williams CB (1943) The relation between the number of species and the number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. J Anim Ecol 12:42–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Flores JG, Batte-Batte C, Dapara J (2002) Caracterización de la vegetación del río Undumo y su importancia para la conservación de la fauna silvestre. Ecol Boliv 37:23–48Google Scholar
  18. Foster R (1991) Plant communities of Alto Madidi, Bajo Tuichi, and the foothill ridges. In: Parker III TA, Bailey B (eds) A biological assessment of the Alto Madidi Region. RAP Working Papers 1. Conservation International, Washington DC, pp 15–19Google Scholar
  19. Foster R, Gentry A (1991) Plant diversity. In: Parker III TA, Bailey B (eds) A biological assessment of the Alto Madidi Region. RAP Working Papers 1. Conservation International, Washington DC, pp 20–21Google Scholar
  20. Fuentes A, Araujo A, Cabrera H, Canqui F, Cayola L, Maldonado C, Paniagua N (2004) Estructura, composición y variabilidad del bosque subandino xérico en un sector del valle del río Tuichi, ANMI Madidi, La Paz (Bolivia). Rev Boliv Ecol Conserv 15:41–62Google Scholar
  21. Fuentes A (2005) Una introducción a la vegetación de la región de Madidi. Ecol Boliv 40(3):1–31Google Scholar
  22. Gentry AH (1988) Changes in plant community diversity and floristic composition on environmental and geographical gradients. Ann Missouri Bot Gard 75:1–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gentry AH (1993) A field guide to the families and genera of woody plants of northwest South America (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru) with supplementary notes on herbaceous taxa. Conservation International, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  24. Gentry AH, Dodson C (1987) Contribution of nontrees to species richness of a tropical rain forest. Biotropica 19:149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heckenberger MJ, Kuikuro A, Kuikuro UT, Russell JC, Schmidt M, Fausto C, Franchetto B (2003) Amazonia 1492: pristine forest or cultural parkland? Science 301:1710–1714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Holmgren PK, Holmgren NH, Barnett LC (1990) Index Herbariorum, part I: the herbaria of the world, Regnum Vegetabile 120, 8th edn. The New York Botanical Garden, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Hubbell SP (2001) The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  28. Jørgensen PM, Macía MJ, Fuentes A, Beck SG, Kessler M, Paniagua N, Seidel R, Maldonado C, Araujo-Murakami A, Cayola L, Consiglio T, Killeen TJ, Cabrera WH, Bascopé F, De la Quintana D, Miranda T, Canqui F, Cardona-Peña V (2005a) Lista anotada de las plantas vasculares registradas en la región de Madidi. Ecol Boliv 40(3):70–169Google Scholar
  29. Jørgensen PM, Macía MJ, Killeen TJ, Beck SG (eds) (2005b) Estudios botánicos de la región de Madidi. Ecol Boliv 40(3):1–452Google Scholar
  30. Kessler M, Helme N (1999) Floristic diversity and phytogeography of the central Tuichi valley, an isolated dry forest locality in the Bolivian Andes. Candollea 54:341–366Google Scholar
  31. Legendre P, Legendre L (1998) Numerical ecology. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  32. Macía MJ, Svenning JC (2005) Oligarchic dominance in western Amazonian plant communities. J Trop Ecol 21:613–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Macía MJ, Ruokolainen K, Tuomisto H, Quisbert J, Cala V (2007) Congruence between floristic patterns of trees and lianas in a southwest Amazonian rain forest. Ecography 30:561–577Google Scholar
  34. Mori SA, Boom BM, De Carvalho AM, Dos Santos TS (1983) Ecological importance of Myrtaceae in an eastern Brazilian wet forest. Biotropica 15:68–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Navarro G, Ferreira W, Antezana C, Arrázola S, Vargas R (2004) Bio-corredor Amboró Madidi, zonificación ecológica. Editorial FAN, Santa CruzGoogle Scholar
  36. Parker III TA, Bailey B (eds) (1991) A biological assessment of the Alto Madidi region and adjacent areas of northwest Bolivia. RAP Working Papers 1. Conservation International, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  37. Pérez-Salicrup DR, Sork VL, Putz FE (2001) Lianas and trees in a liana forest of Amazonian Bolivia. Biotropica 33:34–47Google Scholar
  38. Phillips OL, Miller JS (2002) Global patterns of plant diversity: Alwyn H. Gentry’s forest transect data set. Monogr Syst Bot Missouri Bot Gard 89:1–319Google Scholar
  39. Phillips OL, Núñez P, Lorenzo A, Peña A, Chuspe ME, Galiano W, Yli-Halla M, Rose S (2003a) Habitat association among Amazonian tree species: a landscape-scale approach. J Ecol 91:757–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Phillips OL, Vásquez R, Núñez P, Lorenzo A, Chuspe ME, Galiano W, Peña A, Timaná M, Yli-Halla M, Rose S (2003b) Efficient plot-based floristic assessment of tropical forest. J Trop Ecol 19:629–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pitman NCA, Terborgh JW, Silman MR, Núnez P, Neill DA, Cerón CE, Palacios WA, Aulestia M (2001) Dominance and distribution of tree species in upper Amazonian terra firme forests. Ecology 82:2101–2117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Putz FE (1984) The natural history of lianas on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Ecology 65:1713–1724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Renard-Casevitz FM, Saignes T, Taylor AC (1988) Al este de los Andes: relaciones entre las sociedades amazónicas y andinas entre los siglos XV y XVII. Ediciones Abya-Yala, QuitoGoogle Scholar
  44. Richards PW (1996) The tropical rain forest: an ecological study, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  45. Romero-Saltos H, Valencia R, Macía MJ (2001) Patrones de diversidad, distribución y rareza de plantas leñosas en el Parque Nacional Yasuní y la Reserva Étnica Huaorani, Amazonía ecuatoriana. In: Duivenvoorden JF, Balslev H, Cavelier J, Grandez C, Tuomisto H, Valencia R (eds) Evaluación de recursos vegetales no maderables en la Amazonía noroccidental. IBED, Universiteit van Amsterdam, pp 131–162Google Scholar
  46. Romoleroux K, Foster R, Valencia R, Condit R, Balslev H, Losos E (1997) Árboles y arbustos (dap ≥ 1 cm) encontrados en dos hectáreas de un bosque de la Amazonía ecuatoriana. In: Valencia R, Balslev H (eds) Estudios sobre diversidad y ecología de plantas. Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, pp 189–215Google Scholar
  47. Schnitzer SA (2005) A mechanistic explanation for global patterns of liana abundance and distribution. Am Nat 166:262–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schnitzer SA, Carson WP (2000) Have we missed the forest because of the trees? Trends Ecol Evol 15:375–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Smith DN, Killeen TJ (1998) A comparison of the structure and composition of montane and lowland tropical forest in the serranía Pilón Lajas, Beni, Bolivia. In: Dallmeier F, Comiskey JA (eds) Forest biodiversity in North, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. MAB series, vol 21. UNESCO, Paris, pp 681–700Google Scholar
  50. Svenning JC (1999) Microhabitat specialization in a species-rich palm community in Amazonian Ecuador. J Ecol 87:55–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. ter Steege H, Sabatier D, Castellanos H, Van Andel T, Duivenvoorden J, De Oliveira AA, Ek R, Lilwah R, Maas P, Mori S (2000) An analysis of the floristic composition and diversity of Amazonian forests including those of the Guiana Shield. J Trop Ecol 16:801–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. ter Steege H, Pitman N, Sabatier D, Castellanos H, van der Hout P, Daly DC, Silveira M, Phillips O, Vazquez R, van Andel T, Duivenvoorden J, Adalardo de Oliveira A, Ek R, Lilwah R, Thomas R, van Essen J, Baider C, Maas P, Mori S, Terborgh J, Núñez P, Mogollón H, Morawetz W (2003) A spatial model of tree α-diversity and tree density for the Amazon. Biodivers Conserv 12:2255–2277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Terborgh J, Andresen E (1998) The composition of Amazonian forests: patterns at local and regional scales. J Trop Ecol 14:645–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Thompson J, Brokaw N, Zimmerman JK, Waide RB, Everham III EM, Lodge DJ, Taylor CM, García-Montiel D, Fluet M (2002) Land use history, environment, and tree composition in a tropical forest. Ecol Appl 12:1344–1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tuomisto H, Ruokolainen K, Kalliola R, Linna A, Danjoy W, Rodriguez Z (1995) Dissecting amazonian biodiversity. Science 269:63–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tuomisto H, Ruokolainen K, Yli-Halla M (2003) Dispersal, environment, and floristic variation of western Amazonian forests. Science 299:241–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. van Gemerden BS, Olff H, Parren MPE, Bongers F (2003) The pristine rain forest? Remnants of historical human impacts on current tree species composition and diversity. J Biogeogr 30:1381–1390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vormisto J, Svenning JC, Hall P, Balslev H (2004a) Diversity and dominance in palm (Arecaceae) communities in terra firme forests in the western Amazon basin. J Ecol 92:577–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Vormisto J, Tuomisto H, Oksanen J (2004b) Palm distribution patterns in Amazonian rainforests: what is the role of topographic variation? J Veg Sci 15:485–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. White DA, Hood CS (2004) Vegetation patterns and environmental gradients in tropical dry forests of the northern Yucatan Peninsula. J Veg Sci 15:151–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Real Jardín BotánicoConsejo Superior de Investigaciones CientíficasMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations