Skip to main content

Species accumulation within land use and tree diameter categories in Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Senegal

Abstract

Although farmers have managed west African parkland savanna systems for 1,000 of years, concerns have been raised about the sustainability of these agro-ecosystems due to human population growth, shortening of fallow periods, droughts, desertification and new orientations towards cash generation away from subsistence farming. We conducted a tree diversity survey in 16 villages from Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Senegal, recording total species composition for 300 quadrats (mainly 50 × 20 m2) that were randomly sampled from the main landuse categories of parklands of village fields (VF), bush fields (BF), sylvopastoral zone (SP) and forest reserves (FR). About 110 tree species were encountered, including 100 indigenous species. The results from balanced species accumulation curves (based on randomized subsampling of the same number of quadrats from each village) showed that the accumulated number of species was smallest in VF, largest in FR and almost equal in BF and SP, whereas classical (unbalanced) species accumulation curves yielded different results. Although there was a significant within-village reduction in species richness with increasing diameter class [averaging 8.5–13.1 more species in the smallest (<5 cm) compared to the largest diameter class (>80 cm)] for the different landuse categories, new species were also encountered in larger diameter classes (2.7–7.2 species). The evidence for tree regeneration problems (including problems in FR) suggest that farmer-managed tree regeneration should be further explored and that advances in domestication and marketing of indigenous tree species may be crucial to tree conservation in parkland systems.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Abegg C, Bayala J, Belem M, Kalinganire A (2006) Analyse comparative de facteurs socio-économiques influençant la biodiversité ligneuse des parcs agroforestiers du plateau central du Burkina Faso. J Forest Suisse 157(1):17–23

    Google Scholar 

  2. Arbonnier M (2004) Trees, shrubs and lianas of West African dry zones. CIRAD, Margraf Publishers, MNHN, Paris

    Google Scholar 

  3. Ashley R, Russell D, Swallow B (2006) The policy terrain in protected area landscapes: challenges for agroforestry in integrated landscape conservation. Biodivers Conserv 15:663–689

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Augusseau X, Nikiéma P, Torquebiau E (2006) Tree biodiversity, land dynamics and farmers’ strategies on the agricultural frontier of south-western Burkina Faso. Biodivers Conserv 15:613–630

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Boffa JM (1999) Agroforestry parklands in sub-Saharan Africa. FAO Conservation Guide No 34. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome

  6. Burgess N, D’Amico Hales J, Underwood E, Dinerstein E, Olson D, Itoua I, Schipper J, Ricketts T, Newman K (2004) Terrestrial eco-regions of Africa and Madagascar. Island Press, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  7. Colwell RK, Mao CX, Chang J (2004) Interpolating, extrapolating, and comparing incidence-based species accumulation curves. Ecology 85:2717–2727

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Cunningham PJ, Abasse T (2005) Reforesting the Sahel: farmer managed natural regeneration. In: Kalinganire A, Niang A, Kone B (eds) Domestications des espèces agroforestières au sahel: situation actuelle et perspectives. ICRAF Working Paper 5. World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, pp 75–80

  9. Devineau JL (1999) Seasonal rhythms and phonological plasticity of savanna woody species in a fallow farming system (south-west Burkina Faso). J Trop Ecol 15:497–513

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Evans J, Turnbull JW (2004) Plantation forestry in the tropics: the role, silviculture, and use of planted forests for industrial, social, environmental, and agroforestry purposes. Oxford University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  11. GEF (2002) Desert Margins Programme (DMP): Project Document. United Nations Environment Programme. Global Environment Facility (GEF), Nairobi

  12. Gonzalez P (2001) Desertification and a shift of forest species in the West African Sahel. Clim Res 17:217–228

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Gotelli NJ, Colwell RK (2001) Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness. Ecol Lett 4:379–391

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Gray LC (2005) What kind of intensification? Agricultural practice, soil fertility and socio-economic differentiation in rural Burkina Faso. Geogr J 171:70–82

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Hastie TJ, Pregibon D (1993) Generalised linear models. In: Chambers JM, Hastie TJ (eds) Statistical models in S. Chapman and Hall, London

    Google Scholar 

  16. Kalinganire A, Kaya B, Niang A, Kindt R, Muraya P, Coe R (eds) (2005) Caractérisation de la biodiversité ligneuse dans les sites du programme des zones en marge du désert: Manuel de procédures. Occasional Paper No 3. World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi

  17. Kindt R, Coe R (2005) Tree diversity analysis. A manual and software for some common statistical methods for biodiversity and ecological analysis. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi. URL http://www.worldagroforestry.org/treesandmarkets. Accessed 22 Jan 2008

  18. Kindt R, Van Damme P, Simons AJ (2006) Patterns of species richness at varying scales in western Kenya: planning for agroecosystem diversification. Biodivers Conserv 15:3235–3249

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Kristensen M, Balslev H (2003) Perceptions, use and availability of woody plants among the Gourounsi in Burkina Faso. Biodivers Conserv 12:1715–1739

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Larwanou M, Saadou M (2005) Biodiversity of ligneous species in semi-arid to arid zones of southwestern Niger according to anthropogenic and natural factors. Agric Ecosyst Environ 105:267–271

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Larwanou M, Saadou M (2006) Arbres dans les systèmes agraires en zone sahélienne du Niger: Mode de gestion, atouts et contraintes. Tropicultura 24:8–14

    Google Scholar 

  22. Ly I, Kalinganire A, Niang A (2006) Essai d’analyse de la prise en compte des systemes agroforestiers par les législations forestières au sahel: Cas du Burkina Faso, du Mali, du Niger et du Sénégal. ICRAF Working Paper 29. World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi

  23. Lykke AM (1998) Assessment of species composition change in savanna vegetation by means of woody plants’ size class distributions and local information. Biodivers Conserv 7:1261–1275

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Lykke AM (2000) Local perceptions of vegetation change and priorities for conservation of woody-savanna vegetation in Senegal. J Environ Manage 59:107–120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Lykke AM, Kristensen MK, Ganaba S (2004) Valuation of local use and dynamics of 56 woody species in the Sahel. Biodivers Conserv 13:1961–1990

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Maranz S, Wiesman Z (2003) Evidence for indigenous selection and distribution of the shea tree, Vitellaria paradoxa, and its potential significance to prevailing parkland savanna tree patterns in sub-Saharan Africa north of the equator. J Biogeogr 30:1505–1516

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Mortimore M, Harris FMA, Turner B (1999) Implications of land use change for the production of plant biomass in densely populated Sahelo-Sudanian shrub-grasslands in north-east Nigeria. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 8:243–256

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Oksanen J (1996) Is the humped relationship between species richness and biomass an artefact due to plot size? J Ecol 84:293–295

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Oksanen J, Kindt R, Legendre P, O’Hara RB (2005) Vegan: community ecology package version 1.7-82. URL http://cc.oulu.fi/~jarioksa/

  30. R Development core team (2005) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. URL http://www.R-project.org

  31. Rinaudo T (2001) Utilizing the underground forest: farmer managed natural regeneration of trees. In: Pasternak D, Schlissel A (eds) Combating desertification with plants. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 325–336

    Google Scholar 

  32. Rosenzweig MI, Turner WR, Cox JG, Ricketts TH (2003) Estimating diversity in unsampled habitats of a biogeographical province. Conserv Biol 17:864–874

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Teklehaimanot Z (2004) Exploiting the potential of indigenous agroforestry trees: Parkia biglobosa and Vitellaria paradoxa in sub-Saharan Africa. Agroforest Syst 61:207–220

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Ugland KI, Gray JS, Ellingsen KE (2003) The species-accumulation curve and estimation of species richness. J Anim Ecol 72:888–897

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Wezel A, Boecker R (1998) Fallow plant communities and site characteristics in semi-arid Niger, West Africa. J Arid Environ 40:269–280

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Wezel A, Lykke AM (2006) Woody vegetation change in Sahelian Africa: evidence from local knowledge. Environ Dev Sustain 8:553–567

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. White F (1983) The vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We are very grateful for the collaboration provided by farmers during data collection. We thank GEF (DMP project) and IDRC (Tree Biodiversity Project) for funding data collection and analysis, the governments of Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Senegal for co-funding data collection (through INRA, IER, INRAN and ISRA, respectively), and Peter Muraya and Richard Coe for helping us with data preparation and initial analysis. Roeland Kindt thanks VVOB for co-funding training workshops for African researchers in methods of biodiversity analysis.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Roeland Kindt.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kindt, R., Kalinganire, A., Larwanou, M. et al. Species accumulation within land use and tree diameter categories in Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Senegal. Biodivers Conserv 17, 1883–1905 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-008-9326-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Agroforestry
  • Parkland systems
  • Regeneration
  • Sahel
  • Species accumulation curves
  • Tree diameter