Global diversity and distribution of macrofungi

Abstract

Data on macrofungal diversity and distribution patterns were compiled for major geographical regions of the world. Macrofungi are defined here to include ascomycetes and basidiomycetes with large, easily observed spore-bearing structures that form above or below ground. Each coauthor either provided data on a particular taxonomic group of macrofungi or information on the macrofungi of a specific geographic area. We then employed a meta-analysis to investigate species overlaps between areas, levels of endemism, centers of diversity, and estimated percent of species known for each taxonomic group for each geographic area and for the combined macrofungal data set. Thus, the study provides both a meta-analysis of current data and a gap assessment to help identify research needs. In all, 21,679 names of macrofungi were compiled. The percentage of unique names for each region ranged from 37% for temperate Asia to 72% for Australasia. Approximately 35,000 macrofungal species were estimated to be “unknown” by the contributing authors. This would give an estimated total of 56,679 macrofungi. Our compiled species list does not include data from most of S.E. Europe, Africa, western Asia, or tropical eastern Asia. Even so, combining our list of names with the estimates from contributing authors is in line with our calculated estimate of between 53,000 and 110,000 macrofungal species derived using plant/macrofungal species ratio data. The estimates developed in this study are consistent with a hypothesis of high overall fungal species diversity.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Arora D (1986) Mushrooms demystified, 2nd edn. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, California

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bessette AE, Bessette AR, Fischer DW (1997) Mushrooms of northeastern North America. Syracuse University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bandala-Muñoz V, Guzman G, Montoya Bello L (1988) Especies de macromicetos citadas de México, VII. Agaricales, Parte II. Rev Mex Micol 4:205–250

    Google Scholar 

  4. Breitenbach J, Kränzlin F (1986) Fungi of Switzerland Vol 2 Non gilled fungi. Mykologia, Lucerne, Switzerland

    Google Scholar 

  5. Breitenbach J, Kränzlin F (1991) Fungi of Switzerland Vol 3 Boletes and Agarics 1st part. Mykologia, Lucerne Switzerland

    Google Scholar 

  6. Breitenbach J, Kränzlin F (1995) Fungi of Switzerland Vol 4 Agarics 2nd part. Mykologia, Lucerne, Switzerland

    Google Scholar 

  7. Breitenbach J, Kränzlin F (2000) Fungi of Switzerland Vol 5 Agarics Part 3. Mykologia, Lucerne, Switzerland

    Google Scholar 

  8. Buyck B (1996) Flore Illustree des Champignons d’Afrique Centrale, Fasc. 17: Russula III (Russulaceae)

  9. Cripps CL, Horak E (2002) A survey of alpine Agaricales in the Rocky Mountains http://www.plantsciences.montana.edu/alpinemushrooms/

  10. Cuddihy LW, Stone CP (1990) Alteration of native Hawaiian vegetation. University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Study Unit

  11. Cunningham GH (1944) The Gasteromycetes of Australia and New Zealand. Dunedin, N.Z

    Google Scholar 

  12. Dennis RWG (1970) Fungus flora of Venezuela and adjacent countries. Kew Bull Addition Ser 3:1–531

    Google Scholar 

  13. Desjardin DE (1995) A preliminary accounting of the worldwide members of Mycena sect. Sacchariferae. Bibliotheca Mycol 159:1–89

    Google Scholar 

  14. Desjardin DE, Horak E (1997a) Marasmius and Gloiocephala in the South Pacific region. I. Papua New Guinea and New Caledonia. Bibliotheca Mycol 168:1–83

    Google Scholar 

  15. Desjardin DE, Horak E (1997b) Marasmius and Gloiocephala in the South Pacific region. II. New Zealand. Bibliotheca Mycol 168:84–152

    Google Scholar 

  16. Dimou DM, Zervakis GI, Polemis E (2002) Mycodiversity studies in selected ecosystems of Greece: I. Macrofungi from the southernmost Fagus forest in the Balkans (Oxya Mountain, central Greece). Mycotaxon 82:177–205

    Google Scholar 

  17. Flore Iconographique des Champignons du Congo, Fasc. 1–17. 1935–1970

  18. Garrido N (1988) Agaricales s.l. und ihre mykorrhizen in den Nothofagus-waldern mittelchiles. Bibliotheca Mycol 120:1–528

    Google Scholar 

  19. Greene SW, Gressitt JL, Koob D, Llano GA, Rudolph ED, Singer R, Steere WC, Ugolini FC (1967) Terrestrial life of Antarctica. American Geographical Society, New York

    Google Scholar 

  20. Greslebin AG (2002) Orden Aphyllophorales, familia Corticiaceae sensu lato; Orden Tulasnelales. Flora Criptogamica de Tierra del Fuego 11(4). CONICET, Buenos Aires

  21. Greslebin AG, Rajchenberg M (2003) Diversity of Corticiaceae sens. lat. in Patagonia, southern Argentina. NZ J Bot 41:437–446

    Google Scholar 

  22. Halling RE, Mueller GM (1996-onwards). Macrofungi of Costa Rica. http://www.nybg.org/bsci/res/hall/

  23. Halling RE (1997) A revision of Collybia s.l. in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. http://www.nybg.org/bsci/res/col/

  24. Hawksworth DL (2001) Mushrooms: the extent of the unexplored potential. Int J Med Mushrooms 3:333–337

    Google Scholar 

  25. Hemmes DE, Desjardin DE (2002) Mushrooms of Hawaii. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley

    Google Scholar 

  26. Herrera T, Guzmán G (1972) Especies de macromicetos citadas de México, III. Agaricales. Bol Soc Mex Micol 6:61–91

    Google Scholar 

  27. Hesler LR, Smith AH (1979) North American species of Lactarius. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor

    Google Scholar 

  28. Horak E (1979) Orden Agaricales. Flora Criptogámica de Tierra del Fuego 11(6). FECIC, Buenos Aires

    Google Scholar 

  29. Horak E, Mouchacca J (1998) Annotated checklist of New Caledonian Basidiomycota. I. Holobasidiomycetes. Mycotaxon 68:75–129

    Google Scholar 

  30. Kibby G, Fatto R (1990) Keys to the species of Russula in Northeastern North America, 3rd edn. Kibby–Fatto Enterprises

  31. Kimbrough JW (2000) Common Florida mushrooms. University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Gainesville

    Google Scholar 

  32. Lincoff GH (1995) The national audubon society field guide to North American mushrooms, 11th printing. Alfred A. Knopf, New York

    Google Scholar 

  33. May TW, Wood AE (1997) Catalogue and Bibliography of Australian Macrofungi 1. Basidiomycota p.p. Fungi of Australia, vol. 2A. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra

    Google Scholar 

  34. May TW, Milne J, Shingles S, Jones RH (2002) Fungi of Australia, vol. 2B. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra. (update at ‘Interactive Catalogue of Australian Fungi’ http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/fungi/cat/)

  35. Metzler S, Metzler V (1992) Texas mushrooms. University of Texas Press, Austin

    Google Scholar 

  36. Moser M (1983) Keys to Agarics and Boleti (Polyporales, Boletales, Agaricales, Russulales). Roger Phillips, London

    Google Scholar 

  37. Mueller GM, Mata M (2000) Inventory of Costa Rica: Fungi. http://www.inbio.ac.cr/papers/gt_Hongos/en/index.htm

  38. Mueller GM, Halling RE, Carranza J, Mata M, Schmit JP (2006) Saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal macrofungi of Costa Rican oak forests. In: Kappelle M (ed) Ecology and conservation of neotropical montane oak forests. Ecological studies. Springer pp 55–68

  39. Mujica RF, Vergara CC (1980) Flora Fungosa Chilena, 2nd edn. Universidad de Chile Facultad de Agronomía Ciencias Agrícolas, Univesitaria, Santiago, 308 pp

    Google Scholar 

  40. Nauta MM, Vellinga EC (1995) Atlas van Nederlandse Paddestoelen. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 352 pp

    Google Scholar 

  41. Pegler DN (1977) A preliminary agaric flora of east Africa. Kew Bull Addition Ser 6:1–615

    Google Scholar 

  42. Pegler DN (1983) Agaric flora of the lesser antilles. Kew Bull Addition Ser 9:1–668

    Google Scholar 

  43. Pegler DN (1997) The Agarics of São Paulo, Brazil: an account of the agaricoid fungi (Holobasidiomycetes) of São Paulo State, Brazil. Royal Botanic Gardens, UK

    Google Scholar 

  44. Petersen RH (1988) The Clavarioid Fungi of New Zealand. Lubrecht & Cramer Ltd.

  45. Phillips R (1991) Mushrooms of North America. Little Brown and Company, Boston

    Google Scholar 

  46. Redhead SA (1989) A biogeographical overview of the Canadian mushroom flora. Can J Bot 67:3003–3062

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Rossman A (1994) A strategy for an all-taxa inventory of fungal biodiversity. In: Peng CI, Chou CH (eds), Biodiversity and terrestrial ecosystems. Academia Sinica Monograph Series No. 14, Taipei, pp 169–194

    Google Scholar 

  48. Schmit JP, Mueller GM, Leacock PR, Mata JL, Wu Q-X, Huang Y-Q (2005) Assessment of tree species richness as a surrogate for macrofungal species richness. Biol Conserv 121:99–110

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Segedin BP, Pennycook SR (2001) A nomenclatural checklist of agarics, boletes and related secotioid and gasteromcetous fungi recorded from New Zealand. NZ J Bot 39:285–348

    Google Scholar 

  50. Shaw DE (1984) Microorganisms in Papua New Guinea. Department of Primary Industry, Port Moresby, Res Bull 33:1–344

  51. Singer R (1969). Mycoflora australis. Beihefte Nova Hedwigia 29:1–405

    Google Scholar 

  52. Valenzuela FEZ (1993) Estudio sistemático, corológico y ecológico de los Agaricales sensu lato de los bosques autóctonos de la región de Los Lagos en Chile. Tesis Doctoral, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Facultad de Ciencias, 274 pp

  53. Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH (1990) Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Bishop Museum and University of Hawaii Presses, Honolulu

    Google Scholar 

  54. Weber NS, Smith AH (1985) A field guide to southern mushrooms. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gregory M. Mueller.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mueller, G.M., Schmit, J.P., Leacock, P.R. et al. Global diversity and distribution of macrofungi. Biodivers Conserv 16, 37–48 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-006-9108-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Ascomycetes
  • Basidiomycetes
  • Biodiversity
  • Biogeography
  • Endemism
  • Species lists