Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 15, Issue 8, pp 2627–2653 | Cite as

Impact of game hunting by the Kayapó of south-eastern Amazonia: implications for wildlife conservation in tropical forest indigenous reserves

Article

Abstract

Indigenous forest reserves represent approximately one fifth of Brazilian Amazonia and pose enormous challenges for sustainable natural resource management by native Amazonians. In collaboration with the Kayapó Indians of A’Ukre of southeastern Amazonia, we obtained a game harvest profile of over 1360 forest vertebrates consumed at this village over a 20-month period, including 743 mammals, 361 forest tortoises and 256 birds from a minimum of 42 game species. This amounted to a total of 13,775 kg of game animals harvested over the entire study (mean = 26.2 kg d−1). We also obtained some 450 km of line transect census data of midsized to large-bodied vertebrates within the core hunting catchment of this village and in an unhunted but otherwise comparable site upriver of A’Ukre. Population density estimates of 16 of the 18 species censused were significantly depressed by hunting by central place foragers within the village catchment, and a number of harvest-sensitive prey species showed clear evidence of local depletion. For the time being, however, we can conclude that hunting was sustainable at the landscape scale largely because source-sink dynamics in the context of low village catchment density is made possible by large surrounding tracts of primary forest that remain unharvested or underharvested.

Amazonia Bushmeat Exploitation Forest resources Game management Hunting Indigenous reserves Source-sink dynamics 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alvard, M. 1994Conservation by native people: prey choice in a depleted habitatHuman Nature5127154Google Scholar
  2. Baldock D., Beaufoy G., Brouwer F. and Godeschalk F. 1996. Farming at the Margins: Abandonment or Redevelopment of Agricultural Lands in Europe. Institut for European Environmental Policy Agricultural Economics Research Institute, London/The Hague.Google Scholar
  3. Begazo, A.J., Bodmer, R.E. 1998Use and conservation of cracidae (Aves: Galliformes) in the Peruvian AmazonOryx32301309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bodmer, R.E. 1994

    Managing wildlife with local communities: the case of the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo

    Western, D.Wright, M.Strum, S. eds. Natural ConnectionsIsland PressWashington DC113134
    Google Scholar
  5. Bodmer, R.E. 1995Managing Amazonian wildlife: biological correlates of game choice by detribalized huntersEcological Applications5872877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bodmer, R.E., Eisenberg, J.F., Redford, K.H. 1997Hunting and the likelihood of extinction of Amazonian mammalsConservation Biology11460466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brasil D.N.P.M. 1974. Projeto RADAM. Folha SB 22 Araguaia e parte da folha SC 22 Tocantins. IBGE. RJ. Vol 4.Google Scholar
  8. Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L. 1993Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological PopulationsChapman and HallLondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Emídio-Silva, C. 1998A caça de subsistência praticada pelos índios Parakanã (Sudeste do Pará): características e sustentabilidadeUniversidade Federal do ParáBelémfMSc thesisGoogle Scholar
  10. Fa, J.E., Peres, C.A. 2001

    Game vertebrate extraction in African and Neotropical forests: an intercontinental comparison

    Reynolds, J.Mace, G.Robinson, J.G.Redford, K. eds. Conservation of Exploited SpeciesCambridge University PressCambridge
    Google Scholar
  11. Hames, R.B., Vickers, W.T. 1982Optimal diet breadth theory as a model to explain variability in Amazonian huntingAmerican Ethnologist9358378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hill, K., Padwe, J., Bejyvagi, C., Bepurangi, A., Jakugi, F., Tykuarangi, R., Tykuarangi, T. 1997Impact of hunting on large vertebrates in the Mbaracayu reserveParaguayConservation Biology1113391353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. ISA. 2004. Amazônia Brasileira 2004. Map and database produced by the Instituto Socioambiental. www.socioambiental.org. Accessed on 30 August 2004.Google Scholar
  14. Jerozolimski, A., Peres, CA. 2003Bringing home the biggest bacon: a cross-site analysis of the structure of hunter-kill profiles in Neotropical forestsBiological Conservation111415425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Laake, J.L., Buckland, S., Anderson, D., Burnham, K. 1994Distance User’s Guide V2.1. Colorado Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research UnitColorado State UniversityFort CollinsGoogle Scholar
  16. Leung, W., Flores, M. 1961Food Composition Table for Use in Latin AmericaINCAP-ICNNDBethesda, MDGoogle Scholar
  17. Mena, V.P., Stallings, J.R., Regalado, B.J., Cueva, L.R. 2000

    The sustainability of current hunting practices by the Huaorani

    Robinson, J.G.Bennett, E.L. eds. Hunting for Subsistence in Tropical ForestsColumbia University PressNew York5778
    Google Scholar
  18. Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bennett, E.L., Abernethy, K., Bakarr, M., Bodmer, R., Brashares, J., Cowlishaw, G., Elkan, P., Eves, H., Fa, J., Peres, C.A., Roberts, C., Robinson, J., Rowcliffe, M., Wilkie, D. 2003Wild meat – the bigger pictureTrends in Ecology and Evolution18351357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Morsello, C. 2002Market integration and sustainability in Amazonian indigenous livelihoods: the case of the KayapóUniversity of East AngliaNorwichPhD ThesisGoogle Scholar
  20. Nascimento, H.S. 1999Hunting sustainability by the Kayapó Indians of A’Ukreeastern Brazilian AmazoniaUniversity of East AngliaNorwichMSc ThesisGoogle Scholar
  21. Novaro, A.J., Redford, K.H., Bodmer, R.E. 2000Effect of hunting in source-sink systems in the neotropicsConservation Biology14713721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Peres, C.A. 1990Effects of hunting on western Amazonian primate communitiesBiological Conservation544759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Peres, C.A. 1994Indigenous reserves and nature conservation in Amazonian forestsConservation Biology8586588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Peres, C.A. 1996Population status of white-lipped and collared peccaries in hunted and unhunted Amazonian forestsBiological Conservation77115123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Peres, C.A. 1999General guidelines for standardizing line-transect surveys of tropical forest primatesNeotropical Primates71116Google Scholar
  26. Peres, C.A. 2000aEffects of subsistence hunting on vertebrate community structure in Amazonian forestsConservation Biology14240253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Peres, C.A. 2000b

    Evaluating the sustainability of subsistence hunting at multiple Amazonian forest sites

    Robinson, J.G.Bennett, E.L. eds. Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical ForestsColumbia University PressNew York3156
    Google Scholar
  28. Peres, C.A. 2001Synergistic effects of subsistence hunting and habitat fragmentation on Amazonian forest vertebratesConservation Biology1514901505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Peres, C.A., Lake, I.R. 2003Extent of nontimber resource extraction in tropical forests: accessibility to game vertebrates by hunters in the Amazon basinConservation Biology17521535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Peres, C.A., Zimmerman, B. 2001Perils in Parks or Parks in Peril? Reconciling conservation in Amazonian reserves with and without useConservation Biology15793797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Redford, K.H., Robinson, J.G. 1987The game of choice: patterns of Indian and colonist hunting in the NeotropicsAmerican Anthropologist89650667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Robinson, J.G., Redford, K.H. 1986Intrinsic rate of natural increase in neotropical forest mammals: relationship to phylogeny and dietOecologia68516520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Robinson, J.G., Redford, K.H. 1991

    Sustainable harvest of neotropical forest mammals

    Robinson, J.G.Redford, K.H. eds. Neotropical Wildlife Use and ConservationUniversity of Chicago PressChicago415429
    Google Scholar
  34. Robinson, J.G., Redford, K.H. 1994Measuring the sustainability of hunting in tropical forestsOryx28249256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Salas, L.A., Kim, J.B. 2002Spatial factors and stochasticity in the evaluation of sustainable hunting of tapirsConservation Biology168696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Salm, R. 2002The ecology of large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa and Astrocaryum aculeatum in a seasonally dry Amazonian forestUniversity of East AngliaNorwichMSc ThesisGoogle Scholar
  37. Schwartzman, S., Moreira, A., Nepstad, D. 2000Rethinking tropical forest conservation: perils in parksConservation Biology1413511357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Silva, J., Strahl, S. 1991

    Human impact on populations of chachalacas, guans and curassows (Galliformes: Cracidae) in Venezuela

    Robinson, J.G.Redford, K.H. eds. Neotropical Wildlife Use and ConservationUniversity of Chicago PressChicago3752
    Google Scholar
  39. Slade, N.A., Gomulkiewicz, R., Alexander, H.M. 1998Alternatives to Robinson and Redford’s method of assessing overharvest from incomplete demographic dataConservation Biology12148155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Souza-Mazurek, R.R., Pedrinho, T., Feliciano, X., Hilario, W., Geroncio, S., Marcelo, E. 2000Subsistence hunting among the Waimiri Atroari Indians in central AmazoniaBrazil Biodiversity and Conservation9579596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Strahl, S.D., Grajal, A. 1991Conservation of large avian frugivores and the management of neotropical protected areasOryx255055Google Scholar
  42. Terborgh, J. 1999Requiem for NatureIsland PressWashington, D.CGoogle Scholar
  43. Terborgh, J. 2000The fate of tropical forests: a matter of stewardshipConservation Biology1413581361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Townsend W.R. 2000. The sustainability of subsistence hunting by the Siriono Indians of Bolivia. In: Robinson J.G. and Bennett E.L. (eds), Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests. Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Vickers, W.T. 1984The faunal components of lowland South America hunting killInterciencia9366376Google Scholar
  46. Vickers, W.T. 1988Game depletion hypothesis of Amazonian adaptation: data from a native communityScience23915211522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vidal, L.B. 1977Morte e vida de uma sociedade indígena brasileira: os Kayapó-Xikrin do Rio CatetéEditora da Universidade de São PauloSão Paulo, HucitecGoogle Scholar
  48. Whitesides, G.H., Oates, J.F., Green, S.M., Kluberdanz, R.P. 1988Estimating primate densities from transect in a west African rain forest: a comparison of techniquesJournal of Animal Ecology57345367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. WHO (United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization and World Health Organization)1973Energy and protein requirements: report of a joint FAO/WHO Ad Hoc Expert CommitteeWHOGenevaWHO Technical Report, Series No. 522Google Scholar
  50. Winterhalder, B., Baillargeon, W., Cappelletto, F., Daniel, I., Prescott, C. 1988The population ecology of hunter-gatheres and their preyJournal of Anthropological Archaeology7289328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zimmerman, B., Peres, C.A., Malcolm, J., Turner, T. 2001Conservation and development alliances with the Kayapó of south-eastern Amazoniaa tropical forest indigenous peoplesEnvironmental Conservation281022CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Ecology, Conservation and Evolution, School of Environmental SciencesUniversity of East AngliaNorwichUK
  2. 2.Frente de Proteção Etno-Ambiental do Vale do JavaríFundação Nacional do Ìndio (FUNAI)Tabatinga, AmazonasBrazil

Personalised recommendations