Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 613–630 | Cite as

Tree Biodiversity, Land Dynamics and Farmers’ Strategies on the Agricultural Frontier of Southwestern Burkina Faso

  • Xavier Augusseau
  • Paul Nikiéma
  • Emmanuel Torquebiau
Article

Abstract

In the sub-humid part of Burkina Faso, population growth, migrations and new marketing opportunities have induced rapid land-use changes and social reorganization, leading to new approaches to natural resource management. The objective of this study was to evaluate tree biodiversity parameters in agroforestry parklands (scattered trees in crop land) as population increases and fallows become shorter. Out of about 100 tree species existing in the area, and 50 commonly found in traditional parklands, only 3 indigenous and 2 non-native species hold a significant importance for farmers, all for their fruits. No indigenous tree species are planted, but a few are protected when clearing the land. Planted cashew nut orchards develop rapidly and are seen as a land tenure guarantee and an important source of income. Given these facts, the perspectives for tree biodiversity management in farmers’ land may appear bleak. Yet, the importance given by farmers to specific tree products demonstrates that trees do play a part in land development and farmers’ strategies. Existing practices of farmers show potential for improved land-use and spatial patterning of the land, as revealed by emerging parklands and orchards. Our data do not confirm common statements that migrant farmers do not manage the land as sustainably as native farmers do. Rather than trying to conserve tree biodiversity as it is, researchers and developers should identify with farmers the complementarities between trees and farms and promote tree biodiversity through existing practices.

Key words

Agroforestry Anacardium occidentale Cashew tree Fallow Farmers’ practice Migration Orchard Parkland Shea butter tree Vitellaria paradoxa 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Augusseau, X., Liehoun, E., Kara, A. 2000Evolution de l’organisation agraire dans deux terroirs d’accueil de migrants du Sud-Ouest du Burkina FasoForum National de la Recherche Scientifique et des Innovations TechnologiquesCNRST, OuagadougouBurkina FasoGoogle Scholar
  2. Augusseau X., Liehoun E. and Cheylan J.P. 2003. Dynamiques sociales et transformation des espaces. Le cas d’un village burkinabè en pleine recomposition. In: Dugué P. and Jouve Ph. (eds), Organisation spatiale et gestion des ressources et des territoires ruraux. Actes du Colloque International, Montpellier, France25–27 février 2003, UMR SAGERT (CIRAD-CNEARC-ENGREF), Montpellier, Francepp. 254–264.Google Scholar
  3. Backes, M.M. 2001The role of indigenous trees for the conservation of bio-cultural diversity in traditional agroforestry land use systems: the Bungoma case study. In-situ conservation of indigenous tree speciesAgrofor. Syst.52119132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bayala, J., Teklehaimanot, Z., Ouedraogo, S.J. 2002Millet production under pruned tree crowns in a parkland system in Burkina FasoAgrofor. Syst.54203214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Begon M., Harper J.L. and Townsend C.R. 1990. Ecology: Individuals, Populations and Communities (2nd edn). Blackwell Scientific Publications, 945 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Boffa J.M. 1995. Productivity and Management of Agroforestry Parklands in the Sudan Zone of Burkina Faso. Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.Google Scholar
  7. Botoni E. 2003. Interactions élevage-environnement. Dynamique du paysage et évolution des pratiques pastorales dans les fronts pionniers du Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso. Ph.D. Thesis, Montpellier III University, France.Google Scholar
  8. Depommier D. 1996. Structuredynamique et fonctionnement des parcs à Faidherbia albida (del.) A. Chev. Caractérisation et incidence des facteurs biophysiques et anthropiques sur l’aménagement et le devenir des parcs de Dossi et de WatinomaBurkina Faso. Ph.D. Thesis, Pierre & Marie Curie University, Paris, France, 2 vols.Google Scholar
  9. Ducommun G., Cecchini H., Ouedraogo S. and Bengaly A. 2004. La commercialisation vivrière paysanne au Burkina Faso. HESAZollikofen, Université de Sciences Appliquées, BerneSuisse and CEDRES, Université de OuagadougouBurkina Faso. Projet de recherche TASIM AO, Burkina Faso: Série Documents de travail No. 6, 68 pp. http://www.shl.bfh.ch/fef/feprojektef/htm.Google Scholar
  10. Dugué, P., Koné, F.R., Koné, G. 2003Gestion des ressources naturelles et évolution des systèmes de production agricole des savanes de Côte d’Ivoire: conséquences pour l’élaboration des politiques agricolesCah. Agric.12267273Google Scholar
  11. Ernoult, A., Bureau, F., Poudevigne, I. 2003Patterns of organisation in changing landscapes: implications for the management of biodiversityLandscape Ecol.18239251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Finegan, B., Nasi, R. 2004

    The biodiversity and conservation potential of shifting cultivation landscapes

    Schroth, G.Fonseca, G.A.B.Harvey, C.A.Gascon, C.Vasconcelos, H.L.Izac, A.M.N. eds. Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation of Tropical LandscapesIsland PressWashington153197
    Google Scholar
  13. Gazel G. 2002. Des migrants et des arbres. Impact de la population sur la durabilité de l’écosystème au sud ouest du Burkina Faso: cas de Torokoro. M.Sc. Thesis, Creteil Parix XII University/CIRAD, France and CIRDES, Burkina Faso, 48 pp + annex.Google Scholar
  14. Gray, L.C. 1999Is land being degraded? A multi-scale investigation of landscape change in southwestern Burkina FasoLand Degradation Dev.10329343Google Scholar
  15. Groot A.E. 2002. Demystifying Facilitation of Multi-Actor Learning Process. Ph.D. Thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, 216 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Huang, W., Luukkanen, O., Johanson, S., Kaarakka, V., Räisänen, S., Vihemäki, H. 2002Agroforestry for biodiversity conservation of nature reserves: functional group identification and analysisAgrofor. Syst.556572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Joffre, R., Rambal, S., Ratte, J.P. 1999The dehesa system of southern Spain and Portugal as a natural ecosystem mimicAgrofor. Syst.455779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Leakey, R.R.B., Tchoundjeu, Z., Smith, R.I., Munro, R.C., Fondoun, JM., Kengue, J., Anegbeh, P.O., Atangana, A.R., Waruhiu, A.N., Asaah, E., Usoro, C., Ukafor, V. 2004Evidence that subsistence farmers have domesticated indigenous fruits (Dacryodes edulis and Irvingia gabonensis) in Cameroon and NigeriaAgrofor. Syst.60101111Google Scholar
  19. Melbourne, B.A., Davies, K.F., Margules, C.R., Lindenmayer, D.B., Saunders, D.A., Wissel, C., Henle, K. 2004Species survival in fragmented landscapes: where to from here?Biodiv. Conserv.13275284Google Scholar
  20. Mertz, O. 2002The relationship between length of fallow and crop yields in shifting cultivation: a rethinkingAgrofor. Syst.55149159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Metzger, J.P. 2002Landscape dynamics and equilibrium in areas of slash-and-burn agriculture with short and long fallow period (Bragantina region, NE Brazilian Amazon)Landscape Ecol.17419431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nikiéma P. 2004. Establishment and Indigenous Management of Vitellaria paradoxa Gaerth F. Parkland Systems in Southwestern Part of Burkina Faso: A Case Study of Torokoro Village. M.Sc. Thesis in Agroforestry. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, 91 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Opdam, P., Verboom, J., Pouwels, R. 2003Landscape cohesion: an index for the conservation potential of landscapes for biodiversityLandscape Ecol.18113126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Petit, S. 2003Parklands with fodder trees: a Fulbe response to environmental and social changesAppl. Geogr.23205225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pretty, J., Guijt, I., Thompson, J., Scoones, I. 1995A Trainer's Guide for Participatory Learning and ActionLondonIIEDGoogle Scholar
  26. Simons, A.J., Leakey, R.R.B. 2004Tree domestication in tropical agroforestryAgrofor. Syst.61167181Google Scholar
  27. Soemarwoto, O. 1987

    Homegardens: a traditional agroforestry system with a promising future

    Steppler, H.A.Nair, P.K.R. eds. Agroforestry, a Decade of DevelopmentICRAFNairobi157170
    Google Scholar
  28. Tiffen, M., Mortimore, M., Gichuki, F. 1994More PeopleLess Erosion. Environmental Recovery in KenyaAfrican Center for Technology StudiesNairobiKenya311Google Scholar
  29. Weibull, A.C., Östman, Ö., Granqvist, Å. 2003Species richness in agroecosystems: the effect of landscapehabitat and farm managementBiodiv. Conserv.1213351355Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xavier Augusseau
    • 1
  • Paul Nikiéma
    • 2
  • Emmanuel Torquebiau
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Land, Environment, Resources, Stakeholders (CIRAD TERA)French Agricultural Research Centre for International DevelopmentMontpellier CX5France
  2. 2.Institute for Environment and Agricultural Research (INERA)Bobo DioulassoBurkina Faso

Personalised recommendations