Advertisement

Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 15, Issue 12, pp 3895–3908 | Cite as

Introduction or reintroduction? Last resorts for the latest bird to become extinct in Europe, the Andalusian hemipode Turnix sylvatica sylvatica

  • Cino Pertoldi
  • Juan J. Negro
  • Joaquín Muñoz
  • Filippo Barbanera
  • Héctor Garrido
Article

Abstract

The Andalusian hemipode (Turnix sylvatica sylvatica) (Order: Turniciformes, Family: Turnicidae), formerly distributed in several Mediterranean countries, is a critically endangered bird, if not already extinct. Subspecies of the T. sylvatica complex, in turn composed by nine subspecies are widely distributed in Africa and southern Asia. The last free-ranging Andalusian hemipodes were shot by hunters near Doñana National Park (Spain) in 1981. Therefore, this species could be the last bird species getting extinct in Iberia and Europe in the XXth century. This investigation deals with the phylogenetic relationships of the Andalusian hemipode with the supposedly congeneric T. varia , T. tanki , T. suscitator and T. pyrrhothorax, and with the supposedly conspecific T. sylvatica lepurana, which is the geographically nearest buttonquail population (occurring in central and southern Africa). A 606 bp long fragment of the cytochrome b gene (approx. 1140 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA was sequenced, using both museum skins (the only available source for T. s. sylvatica) or blood/tissue samples from contemporary individuals (remaining species and subspecies). Seven haplotypes were found: two each for T. varia and T. s. lepurana, and one each for T. tanki, T. suscitator, T. pyrrhothorax, and T. s. sylvatica. Sequence divergence values obtained from pairwise distances between the T. sylvatica group haplotypes and the other species, ranged from 19.4 to 25.9%. The low genetic divergence between T. s. sylvatica and T. s. lepurana (0.00–0.01%) confirmed that the current classification based on morphological characters is correct, and that these two taxa may should be considered as subspecies. This close relationship would permit an introduction T. sylvatica where the species was last seen in Spain (i.e., Doñana National Park). This area is now strictly protected and human persecution is no longer a problem.

Keywords

Buttonquail Cytochrome b gene Doñana National Park Mitochondrial DNA Molecular phylogeny Turniciformes 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arévalo Baca, J. 1887Ayes de EspañaImp. de la Viuda e Hijos de AguadoMadridGoogle Scholar
  2. Avise, J.C., Ball, R.M.,Jr. 1990Principles of genealogical concordance in species concepts and biological taxonomyOxford Surv. Evol. Biol.74567Google Scholar
  3. Bensasson, D., De-Xing, Z., Hard, D.L., Hewitt, G.M 2001Mitochondrial pseudogenes: evolution's misplaced witnessesTrends Ecol. Evol.6314321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernis, F. 1966Aves migradoras ibéricasPub. de la S.E.OMadridVol. 3.Google Scholar
  5. Cao, X., Adachi, J., Janke, A., Pääbo, S., Hasegawa, M. 1994Phylogenetic relationships among eutherian orders estimated from inferred sequences of mitochondrial proteins: instability of a tree based on a single geneJ. Mol. Evol.39519527CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chapman, A. 1884Rough notes on Spanish ornithologyIbis18846699Google Scholar
  7. Cracraft, J. 1988The major clades of birdsBenton, M.J. eds. The Phylogeny and Classification of TetrapodsClarendon PressOxford339361Google Scholar
  8. Colahan, B.D. 1997Kurrichane ButtonquailHarrison, J.A.Allan, D.C.Underhill, L.G.Herremans, M.Tree, A.J.Parker, V.Brown, C.J. eds. The Atlas of Southern African Birds. Vol. 1: Non-passerinesBirdLife South AfricaJohannesburg306307Google Scholar
  9. Cummings, M.P., Otto, S.P., Wakeley, J. 1995Sampling properties of DNA sequence data in phylogenetic analysisMol. Biol. Evol.12814822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Friesen, V.L., Montevecchi, W.A., Baker, A.J., Barrets, R.T., Davidson, W.S. 1996Population differentiation and evolution in the common guillemot Uuria aalge Mol. Ecol.5793805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gemmell, N.J., Akiyama, S. 1996An Efficient Method for the Extraction of DNA from Vertebrate TissuesTrends Genet.1293389339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gilligan, D.M., Briscoe, D.A., Erankham, R. 2005Comparative losses of quantitative and molecular genetic variation in finite populations of Drosophila melanogaster Genet. Res.854755CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Graybeal, A. 1998Is it better to add taxa or characters to a difficult phylogenetic problem?Syst. Biol.47917CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hall, L.M., Willcox, M.S., Jones, D.S. 1997Association of enzyme inhibition with methods of museum skin preparationBiotechniques22928930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Harlid, A., Janke, A., Arnason, U. 1997The mtDNA sequence of the ostrich and the divergence between paleognathous and neognathous birdsMol. Biol. Evol.14754761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hofreiter, M., Serre, D., Poinar, H.N., Kuch, M., Pääbo, S. 2001Ancient DNANat. Rev. Genet.2353359CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Huelsenbeck, J.P., Crandall, K.A. 1997Phylogeny estimation and hypothesis testing using maximum likelihoodAnnu. Rev. Ecol. Syst.28437466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huelsenbeck, J.P., Ronquist, F. 2001MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenyBioinformatics17754755CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Irby, L. 1895The Ornithology of the Straits of GibraltarK.A. PorterLondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Lopez, J.V., Yuhki, R., Masuda, R., Modi, W., O’Brien, L.S. 1994Numta recent transfer and tandem amplification of mitochondrial DNA to the nuclear genome of the domestic catJ. Mol. Evol.39174190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Moore, W.S., DeFilippis, V.R. 1997Taxonomic resolution based on cytochrome b DNAMinden, D.P. eds. Avian Molecular Evolution and SystematicsAcademic PressSan Diego, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  22. O’Rourke, D.H., Hayes, M.G., Carlyle, S.W. 2000Ancient DNA studies in physical anthropologyAnnu. Rev. Anthropol.29217242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Paton, T.A., Baker, A.J., Groth, J.G., Barrowclough, G.F. 2003RAG-1 sequences resolve phylogenetic relationships within charadriiform birdsMol. Phylogenet. Evol.29268278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Posada, D., Crandall, K.A. 1998MODELTEST: testing the model of DNA substitutionBioinformatics14817818CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Questiau, S., Eybert, M.C., Gaginskaya, A.R., Gielly, L., Taberlet, P. 1998Recent divergence between two morphologically different subspecies of bluethroat (Aves: Muscicapidae: Luscinia svecica) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence variationMol. Ecol.7239245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Reed, D.H., Frankham, R. 2001How closely correlated are molecular and quantitative measures of genetic variation? A meta-analysisEvolution5510951103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Rotthowe, K., Starck, J.M. 1998Evidence for a phylogenetic position of Button quail (Turnicidae: Aves) among the GruiformesJ. Zoolog. Syst. Evol. Res.363951Google Scholar
  28. Rutgers, A., Norris, K.A. 1970Encyclopaedia of Aviculture OneBlanford PressLondon247248Google Scholar
  29. Ryder, O.A. 1986Species conservation and systematics: the dilemma of subspeciesTrends Ecol. Evol.1910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Saunders, H. 1871A list of the Birds of Southern SpainIbis18715468Google Scholar
  31. Saunders H. 1877. Catalogue des oiseaux du midi de 1’Espagne. B. Soc. Zool. Fr. 2: 11–22, 89–98 et 185–207.Google Scholar
  32. Seutin, G., White, B.N., Boag, P.T. 1991Preservation of avian blood and tissue samples for DNA analysesCan. J. Zool.698290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Short, L. 1969Taxonomic aspects of avian hybridizationAuk8684105Google Scholar
  34. Sibley, C.G., Ahlquist, J.E. 1990Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular EvolutionYale University PressNew Haven, ConnGoogle Scholar
  35. Spenkelink-Van Schaik, J.L. 1984Notes on keeping and breeding little buttonquail Turnrx sylvatica Avicult. Mag.90219220Google Scholar
  36. Swofford, D.L. 1998PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods)Sinauer AssociatesSunderland MassachusettsVersion 4Google Scholar
  37. Violani, C.G., Massa, B. 1994Extinction of the Andalusian hemipode Turnix sylvatica (Desf.) in the Mediterranean regionBull. B.O.C.113225229Google Scholar
  38. Vogler, A.P., DeSalle, R. 1994Diagnosing units of conservation managementConserv. Biol.8354363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Waples, R.S. 1998Separating the wheat from the chaff: patterns of genetic differentiation in high gene flow speciesJ. Hered.8943850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Watkins, C.W. 1857Birds of AndalusiaZoologist185756045608Google Scholar
  41. Zink, R.M., Barrowclough, G.F., Atwood, J.L., Blackwood-Rago, R.C. 2000Genetics, taxonomy, and conservation of the threatened California gnatcatcherConserv. Biol.1413941405CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cino Pertoldi
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Juan J. Negro
    • 3
  • Joaquín Muñoz
    • 1
  • Filippo Barbanera
    • 4
  • Héctor Garrido
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Molecular Ecology, Estación Biológica Doñana, CSICSevilleSpain
  2. 2.Department of Ecology and GeneticsUniversity of AarhusNy MunkegadeDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Applied BiologyEstación Biológica Doñana, CSIC, Pabellón del PerúSevilleSpain
  4. 4.Department of Ethology, Ecology and EvolutionUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  5. 5.Department of Wildlife Ecology and BiodiversityNational Environmental Research InstituteRøndeDenmark

Personalised recommendations