Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 241–268 | Cite as

Norms for Experiencing Emotions

  • Chu Kim-prieto
  • Michael Eid
Article

Abstract

Norms for experiencing emotions were analyzed for 1,056 participants from five African nations (Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe) in a cross-cultural study. Results showed much within-nation as well as between-nation variability in norms. Multigroup latent class analysis showed that the more collectivistic African nations found guilt more desirable and pride less desirable than the less collectivistic African nations. Many of the classes found in the African nations resembled classes found in other cultures, providing evidence for the universality of some norms; culture-specific norms for emotions were also found. Contrary to expectations regarding norms for emotions in collectivistic cultures, Africa-specific norms for emotions included a large class of people who found all negative emotions undesirable.

culture emotion Africa latent-class 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Abu-Lughod, L.: 1986, Veiled Sentiments (University of California Press, Berkeley).Google Scholar
  2. Briggs, J. L.: 1970, Never in Anger. (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA).Google Scholar
  3. Cacioppo, J. T. and W. L. Gardner: 1999, ‘Emotion’, Annual Review of Psychology 50, pp. 191–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Diener, E. and R. A. Emmons: 1984, ‘The independence of positive and negative affect’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47, pp. 1107–1117.Google Scholar
  5. Diener, E., C. K. Scollon, S. Oishi, V. Dzokoto and E. M. Suh: 2000, ‘Positivity andthe construction of life satisfaction judgments: Global happiness is not the sum of its parts’, Journal of Happiness Studies 1, pp. 159–176.Google Scholar
  6. Diener, E., H. Smith and F. Fuijta: 1995, ‘The personality structure of affect’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69, pp. 130–141.Google Scholar
  7. Diener, E., E. M. Suh, H. Smith and L. Shao: 1995, ‘National differences in reported subjective well-being: Why do they occur?’ Social Indicators Research 34, pp. 7–32.Google Scholar
  8. Doi, T.: 1973, The Anatomy of Dependence (J. Bester, Trans. ) (Kodansha International, Tokyo).Google Scholar
  9. Eid, M.: 2001, ‘Advanced statistical methods for the study of appraisal and emotional reaction’, in K. R. Scherer and A. Schorr (eds), Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research (Oxford University Press, Oxford), pp. 319–349.Google Scholar
  10. Eid, M. and E. Diener: 2001, ‘Norms for experiencing emotions in different cultures: Inter-and within-nation differences’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81, pp. 869–885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Eid, M., R. Langeheine and E. Diener: (in press), ‘Comparing typological structures across cultures by multigroup latent class analysis: A primer. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.Google Scholar
  12. Ekman, P.: 1970, ‘Universal facial expressions of emotion’, California Mental Health Research Digest 8, pp. 151–158.Google Scholar
  13. Ekman, P.: 1972, ‘Universals and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion’, in J. Cole (ed.), Nebraska Symposium of Motivation (University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln).Google Scholar
  14. Ekman, P.: 1993, ‘Facial expression and emotion’, American Psychologist 48, pp. 384–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ekman, P. and K. G. Heider: 1988, ‘The universality of a contempt expression: A replication’, Motivation & Emotion 12, pp. 303–308.Google Scholar
  16. Eshun, S.: 1999, ‘Cultural variations in hopelessness, optimism, andsuicidal ideation: A study of Ghana and U. S. college samples’, Cross-Cultural Research: The Journal of Comparative Social Science, 33, pp. 227–238.Google Scholar
  17. Geertz, C.: 1984, ‘From the native’s point of view’: On the nature of anthropological understanding’, in R. A. Shweder and R. A. LeVine (eds), Culture theory: Essays on mind, self, andemotion (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge) pp. 123–136.Google Scholar
  18. Gelfand, M.: 1973, The Genuine Shona (Mambo Press, Zimbabwe, Gweru).Google Scholar
  19. Heuchert, J. W. P., W. D. Parker, H. Stumpf and C. P. H. Myburgh: 2000, The five-factor model of personality in South African college students. American Behavioral Scientist 44, pp. 112–125.Google Scholar
  20. Hofstede, G. H.: 1980, Culture’s Consequences, International Differences in Work-related Values (Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA).Google Scholar
  21. Hui, C. H. and H. C. Triandis: 1986, ‘Individualism-collectivism’, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 17, pp. 225–248.Google Scholar
  22. Kitayama, S., H. R. Markus and M. Kurokawa: 2000, ‘Culture, emotion, and well-being: Good feelings in Japan and the United States’, Cognition & Emotion 14, pp. 93–124.Google Scholar
  23. Kitayama, S., H. R. Markus and H. Matsumoto: 1998, ‘Culture, self, and emotion: A cultural perspective on “self-conscious” emotions’, in J. P. Tangney and K. w. Fischer (eds), Self-conscious emotions: The Psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, andpride (Guilford Press, New York), pp. 439–464.Google Scholar
  24. Kokot, S. J.: 1989, The primary school child’s language of emotions’, Educational Psychology 9, pp. 273–285.Google Scholar
  25. Langeheine, R., J. Pannekoek and F. van de Pol: 1996, ‘Bootstrapping goodness-of-fit measures in categorical data analysis’, Sociological Methods andResearch 24, pp. 492–516.Google Scholar
  26. Langeheine, R. and J. Rost: 1988, Latent Trait and Latent Class Models (Plenum, New York).Google Scholar
  27. Lee, A. Y., J. L. Aaker and W. L. Gardner: 2000, ‘The pleasures and pains of distinct self-construals: The role of interdependence in regulatory focus’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78, pp. 1122–1134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Leung, K. and M. H. Bond: 1989, ‘On the empirical identification of dimensions for cross-cultural comparisons’, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 20, pp. 133–151.Google Scholar
  29. Levenson, R. W., P. Ekman, K. Heider and W. V. Friesen: 1992, ‘Emotion and autonomic nervous system activity in the Minangkabau of West Sumatra’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 62, pp. 972–988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Levy, R. I.: 1984, ‘The emotions in comparative perspective’, in K. R. Scherer and P. Ekman (eds), Approaches to Emotion (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ) pp. 397–412.Google Scholar
  31. Lutz, C. A.: 1988, Unnatural Emotions: Everyday Sentiments on aMicronesian Atoll and their Challenge to Western Theory (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago).Google Scholar
  32. Markus, H. and S. Kitayama: 1991, ‘Culture and the self: implications for cognition, emotion, andmotivation’, Psychological Review 98, pp. 224–253.Google Scholar
  33. Markus, H. R. and S. Kitayama: 1994, ‘The cultural construction of self andemotion: Implications for social behavior’, in S. Kitayama and H. R. Markus (eds), Emotion and culture: Empirical studies of mutual influence (American Psychological Association, Washington, D. C) pp. 89–130.Google Scholar
  34. Matsumoto, D.: 1993, ‘Ethnic differences in affect intensity, emotion judgements, display rule attitudes, andself-reported emotional expression in an American sample’, Motivation & Emotion 17, pp. 107–123.Google Scholar
  35. Matsumoto, D.: 1999, ‘Culture and self: An empirical assessment of Markus andKitayama’s theory of independent and interdependent self-construals’, Asian Journal of Social Psychology 2, pp. 289–310.Google Scholar
  36. Matsumoto, D., T. Kudoh, K. Scherer and H. Wallbott: 1988, ‘Antecedents of andreactions to emotions in the United States and Japan’, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 19, pp. 267–286.Google Scholar
  37. Matsumoto, D. and C. Kupperbusch: 2001, ‘Idiocentric and allocentric differences in emotional expression, experience, andthe coherence between expression andexperience’, Asian Journal of Social Psychology 4, pp. 113–131.Google Scholar
  38. Mesquita, B. and N. H. Frijda: 1992, ‘Cultural variations in emotions: A review’, Psychological Bulletin 112, pp. 179–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Mesquita, B. and M. Karasawa: 2002, ‘Different emotional lives’, Cognition & Emotion 16, pp. 127–141.Google Scholar
  40. Mokgatlhe, B. and J. B. Shoeman: 1998, ‘Predictors of satisfaction with life: The role of racial identity, collective self-esteem and gender-role attitudes’, South African Journal of Psychology 28, pp. 28–35.Google Scholar
  41. Mpofu, E: 1999, ‘Modernity and subjective well-being in Zimbabwean college students’, South African Journal of Psychology 29, pp. 191–200.Google Scholar
  42. Naidoo, J. C., A. Olowu, A. Gilbert and C. Akotia: 1999, ‘Challenging Euro-American-centered psychology: The voices of African psychologists’, in W. J. Lonner, D. L. Dinnel, D. K. Forgays and S. A. Hayes (eds), Merging Past, Present, andFuture in Cross-cultural Psychology, (Swets & Zeitlinger, B. V., Lisse, The Netherlands), (pp. 124–134).Google Scholar
  43. Oishi, S., E. Diener, R. Lucas and E. Suh: 1999, ‘Cross-cultural variations in predictors of life satisfaction: Perspectives from needs and values’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 25, pp. 980–990.Google Scholar
  44. Oyserman, D., H. M. Coon and M. Kemmelmeier: 2002, ‘Rethinking individualism andcollectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta analyses’, Psychological Bulletin 128, pp. 3–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Rosaldo, M. Z.: 1984, ‘Toward and anthropology of self and feeling’, in R. A. Shweder and R. A. LeVine (eds), Culture Theory: Essays on Mind, self and Emotion. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge), pp. 137–157.Google Scholar
  46. Rozin, P.: 1999, ‘Preadaptation and the puzzles and properties of pleasure’, in:D. Kahneman, E. Diener and N. Schwarz (eds), Well-being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology. (Russell Sage Foundation, New York), pp. 109–133Google Scholar
  47. Scherer, K. R., A. B. Summerfield and H. G. Wallbott: 1983, ‘Cross-national research on antecedents and components of emotion: A progress report’, Social Science Information 22, pp. 355–385.Google Scholar
  48. Schimmack, U., P. Radhakrishnan, S. Oishi, V. Dzokoto and S. Ahadi: 2002, ‘Culture, personality, andsubjective well-being: Integrating process models of life satisfaction’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82, pp. 582–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Scollon, C., E. Diener, S. Oishi and R. Biswas-Diener: 2002, ‘Culture, selfconcept, andmemory for emotions’, in preparation.Google Scholar
  50. Shweder, R. A.: 1994, You’re not sick, you’re just in love: emotion as an interpretive system. in P. Ekman and R. J. Davidson (eds), The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental questions. (Oxford University Press, New York).Google Scholar
  51. Shweder, R. A. and R. A. LeVine (eds): 1984, ‘Culture theory: Essays on mind, self and emotion. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge).Google Scholar
  52. Singelis, T. M., H. C. Triandis, D. P. S. Bhawuk and M. J. Gelfand: 1995, ‘Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism: A theoretical and measurement refinement’, Cross-Cultural Research, 29, 240–275.Google Scholar
  53. Solomon, R. C.: 1984, ‘Getting angry: The Jamesian theory of emotion in anthropology’, in R. A. Shweder and R. A. LeVine (eds), Culture Theory (Cambridge University Press, New York), pp. 238–254.Google Scholar
  54. Suh, E., E. Diener, S. Oishi and H. C. Triandis: 1998, ‘The shifting basis of life satisfaction judgements across cultures: Emotions versus norms’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74, pp. 482–493.Google Scholar
  55. Triandis, H. C.: 1994, Culture and Social Behavior. (McGraw-Hill, New York).Google Scholar
  56. Triandis, H. C.: 1995, Individualism and collectivism. (Westview Press, Boulder, CO).Google Scholar
  57. Triandis, H. C. and Gelfand, M. J.: 1998, ‘Converging measurement of horizontal andvertical individualism and collectivism’, Journal of Personality andSocial Psychology 74, pp. 118–128.Google Scholar
  58. Triandis, H. C., K. Leung, M. J. Villareal and F. L. Clack: 1985, ‘Allocentric versus idiocentric tendencies: Convergent and discriminant validation’, Journal of Research in Personality 19, pp. 395–415.Google Scholar
  59. Triandis, H. C., G. Marin, J. Lisansky and H. Betancourt: 1984, ‘Simpatia as a cultural script of Hispanics’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47, pp. 1363–1375.Google Scholar
  60. Triandis, H. C., H. C. McCusker and C. H. Hui: 1990, ‘Multimethod probes of individualism and collectivism’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59, pp. 1006–10200.Google Scholar
  61. van de Vijver, F. and K. Leung: 1997, Methods and data analysis for crosscultural research. (Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA).Google Scholar
  62. Von Davier, M.: 1997, ‘Bootstrapping goodness-of-fit statistics for sparse categorical data. Results of a Monte Carlo study.’ Methods of Psychological Research – Online (http://www. mpr-online. de). Vol. 2, No. 2.Google Scholar
  63. van de Pol, F., R. Langeheine and W. de Jong: 1996, ‘PANMARK3, Panel Analysis Using Markov Chains – A Latent Class Analysis Program. (Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics, Voorburg, The Netherlands).Google Scholar
  64. Wallbott, H. G. and K. R. Scherer: 1995, ‘Cultural determinants in experiencing shame and guilt’, in J. P. Tangney and K. W. Fisher (eds), Self-conscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, andpride. (Guilford Press, New York), pp. 468–487.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chu Kim-prieto
    • 1
  • Michael Eid
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Illinois, Urbana-ChampaignChampaignUSA

Personalised recommendations