Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Tree diversity in primary forest and different land use systems in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

  • Published:
Biodiversity & Conservation Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

We studied the tree communities in primary forest and three different land use systems (forest gardens, ca. 5-year-old secondary forests, cacao plantations) at 900–1200 m elevation in the environs of Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi. The primary forests had ca. 150 tree species ≥10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) per hectare, which is unusually high for forests at this elevation in southeast Asia. Basal area in the primary forest was 140 m2 ha−1, one of the highest values ever recorded in tropical forests worldwide. Tree species richness declined gradually from primary forest to forest gardens, secondary forests, and cacao plantations. This decline was paralleled by shifts in tree family composition, with Lauraceae, Meliaceae, and Euphorbiaceae being predominant in primary forests, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae and Myristicaeae dominating in the forest gardens and Euphorbiaceae, Urticaceae, and Ulmaceae in the secondary forests. Cacao plantations were composed almost exclusively of cacao trees and two species of legume shade trees. Forest gardens further differed from primary forests by a much lower density of understorey trees, while secondary forests had fewer species of commercial interest. Comparative studies of birds and butterflies demonstrated parallel declines of species richness, showing the importance of trees in structuring tropical forest habitats and in providing resources.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • M.G. Audley-Charles (1983) ArticleTitleReconstruction of eastern Gondwanaland Nature 306 48–50 Occurrence Handle10.1038/306048a0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • P. Baas K. Kalkman R. Geesink (Eds) (1990) The Plant Diversity of Malesia Kluwer DordrechtThe Netherlands

    Google Scholar 

  • S. Brown A.E. Lugo (1990) ArticleTitleTropical secondary forests Journal of Tropical Ecology 6 1–32 Occurrence Handle10.1017/S0266467400003989

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Colwell R.K. 1997. Estimates: Statistical Estimation of Species Richness and Shared Species from Samples. Version 5. User’s Guide and Application. Published at: http://viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/estimates.

  • H.C. Dawkins (1959) ArticleTitleThe volume increment of natural tropical high-forest and limitations to improvements Empire Forestry Review 38 175–180

    Google Scholar 

  • W. de Jong M.S. van Noordwijk N. Liswanti Sujanto (2001) ArticleTitleFarming secondary forests in Indonesia Journal of Tropical Forest Science 13 705–726

    Google Scholar 

  • S. Fujisaka G. Escobar G.E. Veneklaas (1998) ArticleTitlePlant community diversity relative to human land uses in an Amazon forest colony Biodiversity and Conservation 7 41–57 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1008855612209

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • G. Gerold M. Fremery C. Leuschner E. Guhardja (2002) Land usenature conservation, and the stability of rainforest margins in Southeast Asia International Symposium Sept. 30–Oct. 4, 2002 Bogor Indonesia

    Google Scholar 

  • A. Hamann E.B. Barbon E. Curio D.A. Madulid (1999) ArticleTitleA botanical inventory of a submontane tropical rainforest on Negros IslandPhilippines Biodiversity and Conservation 8 1017–1031 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1008847704539

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • S.K. Herzog M. Kessler T.M. Cahill (2002) ArticleTitleEvaluation of a new rapid assessment method for estimating avian diversity in tropical forests The Auk 199 749–769

    Google Scholar 

  • M. Kappelle (1996) Los bosques de roble (Quercus) de la Cordillera de TalamancaCosta Rica: Biodiversidadecologíaconservación y desarollo InBio Costa Rica

    Google Scholar 

  • M. Kappelle P.A.F. Kennis R.A.J. De Vries (1995) ArticleTitleChanges in diversity along a successional gradient in a Costa Rican upper montane Quercus forest Biodiversity and Conservation 4 10–34 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF00115312

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • M. Kappelle T. Geuze M. Leal A.M. Cleef (1996) ArticleTitleSuccessional age and forest structure in a Costa Rican upper montane Quercus forest Journal of Tropical Ecology 12 681–689

    Google Scholar 

  • P.J.A. Keßler M. Bos S.E.C. Sierra Daza A. Kop L.P.M. Willemse R. Pitopang S.R. Gradstein (2002) ArticleTitleChecklist of woody plants of SulawesiIndonesia BlumeaSupplement 14 1–160

    Google Scholar 

  • A.-M. Klein I. Steffan-Dewenter A. Buchori T. Tscharntke (2002a) ArticleTitleEffects of land-use intensity in tropical agroforestry systems on coffee flower-visiting and trap-nestig bees and wasps Conservation Biology 16 1003–1014 Occurrence Handle10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.00499.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • A.-M. Klein I. Steffan-Dewenter T. Tscharntke (2002b) ArticleTitlePredator–prey ratios on cocoa along a land-use gradient in Indonesia. Biodiversity and Conservation 11 683–693 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1015548426672

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • L. Köhler (2002) ArticleTitleDie Bedeutung der Epiphyten im ökosystemaren Wasser- und Nährstoffumsatz verschiedener Altersstadien eines Bergregenwaldes in Costa Rica Berichte des Forschungszentrums Waldökosysteme A 181 1–134

    Google Scholar 

  • A. Marjokorpi K. Ruokolainen (2003) ArticleTitleThe role of traditional forest gardens in the conservation of tree species in West Kalimantan, Indonesia Biodiversity and Conservation 12 799–822 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1022487631270

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • S. Mori B.M. Boom A.M. de Carvalho T.S. dos Santos (1983) ArticleTitleSouthern Bahian Moist Forests The Botanical Review 49 155–232 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF02861011

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • H.A. Mooney J. Lubchenco R. Dirzo O.E. Sala (1995) Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: basic principles V.H. Heywood R.T. Watson (Eds) Global Biodiversity Assessment Cambridge University Press CambridgeUK 275–325

    Google Scholar 

  • N. Parthasarathy (1999) ArticleTitleTree diversity and distribution in undisturbed and human-impacted sites of tropical wet evergreen forest in the southern Wastern Ghats, India Biodiversity and Conservation 8 1365–1381 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1008949407385

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • I. Perfecto R.A. Rice R. Greenberg M.E. Van der Voort (1996) ArticleTitleShade coffee: a disappearing refuge for biodiversity Bioscience 46 598–608

    Google Scholar 

  • R.A. Rice R. Greenberg (2000) ArticleTitleCacao cultivation and the conservation of biological diversity Ambio 29 167–174

    Google Scholar 

  • M.C. Roos (1993) ArticleTitleState of affairs regarding Flora Malesiana: progress in revision and publication schedule Flora Malesiana Bulletin 11 133–142

    Google Scholar 

  • C.H. Schulze M. Waltert P.J.A. Keßler R. Pitopang Shahabuddin D. Veddeler M. Mühlenberg S.R. Gradstein C. Leuschner I. Steffan-Dewenter T. Tscharntke (2004) ArticleTitleBiodiversity indicator groups of tropical land-use systems: comparing plants, birds and insects Ecological Applications 14 1321–1333

    Google Scholar 

  • I.M. Turner (1996) ArticleTitleSpecies loss in fragments of tropical rain forests: a review of the evidence Journal of Applied Ecology 33 200–209

    Google Scholar 

  • I.M. Turner Y.K. Wong P.T. Chew A. bin Ibrahim (1997) ArticleTitleTree species richness in primary and old secondary tropical forest in Singapore Biodiversity and Conservation 6 237–543 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1018381111842

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • I.M. Turner (2001) The Ecology the Tropical Rainforest Cambridge University Press CambridgeUK

    Google Scholar 

  • T.C. Whitmore J.A. Sayer (Eds) (1992) Tropical Deforestation and Species Extinction Chapman & Hall London

    Google Scholar 

  • T.C. Whitmore (1995) Comparing Southeast Asian and other tropical rainforests R.B. Primack E. Lovejoy (Eds) Ecology, Conservation and Management of Southeast Asian Rainforests Yale University Press New Haven, Connecticut 5–15

    Google Scholar 

  • A.J. Whitten M. Muslim G.S. Henderson (1987) The Ecology of Sulawesi Gadjah Mada University Press Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michael Kessler.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kessler, M., Keßler, P.J., Gradstein, S.R. et al. Tree diversity in primary forest and different land use systems in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodivers Conserv 14, 547–560 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-004-3914-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-004-3914-7

Keywords

Navigation