Skip to main content

Spatial Diversity of Dry Savanna Woodlands

Assessing the Spatial Diversity of a Dry Savanna Woodland Stand in Northern Namibia Using Neighbourhood-based Measures

Abstract

The dry woodland savannas of Namibia are of significant socio-economic importance. The paper tests the suitability of a number of diversity indicators developed for species poor systems in Europe in the woodland context. The indicators that were tested included the species specific mingling index, M Sp, the measure of surround and the uniform angle index. The simple application of the methods permit relatively unschooled crews to conduct an enumeration in the field. The results show that the indicators do not only display current diversity status, but also reflect the ecological context of the individual species.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Albert M. and Gadow K.v. 1998. Assessing biodiversity with new neighborhood-based parameters. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Data Management and Modelling Using Remote Sensing and GIS for Tropical Forest Land Inventory. Jakarta, Indonesia, Oct. 26–29, 1998.

  • M. Amakali (1992) Updated isohyetal rainfall map for Namibia Department of Water Affairs Namibia

    Google Scholar 

  • Büschel D. 1999. A study of resource utilization: a case from Namibia, Mpungu constituency, Kavango districtnorthern Namibia. CRIAA SA-DC Report, Windhoek, Namibia.

  • M. Chakanga (1995) Forest Cover Reconnaissance Mapping Project Directorate of Forestry Republic of Namibia, Windhoek

    Google Scholar 

  • S.L. Childes (1984) The population dynamics of some woody species in the Kalahari sand vegetation of the Hwange National Park University of the Witwatersrand South Africa

    Google Scholar 

  • P.J. Clark F.C. Evans (1954) ArticleTitleDistance to Nearest Neighbor as a Measure of Spatial Relationships in Populations Ecology 35 IssueID4 445–453 Occurrence Handle10.2307/1931034

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coetzee M.E. 2001. NAMSOTER, A SOTER database for Namibia. Agroecological Zoning Programme, Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Rural Development, Namibia.

  • S.E. Crerar J.T. Church (1988) Evaporation map for south West Africa/Namibia Department of Water Affairs Namibia

    Google Scholar 

  • N.J. Dominy B. Duncan (2001) ArticleTitleGPS and GIS methods in an African rain forest: applications to tropical ecology and conservation Conserv. Ecol. 5 IssueID2 6

    Google Scholar 

  • InstitutionalAuthorNameDepartment of Water Affairs (1971) Consolidated report on reconnaissance surveys of soils of northern and central south West Africa in terms of their potential for irrigation Department of Water Affairs Windhoek, Namibia

    Google Scholar 

  • InstitutionalAuthorNameDepartment of Water Affairs (1991) Groundwater investigation in Kavango and Bushmanland, Namibia Department of Water Affairs Windhoek, Namibia

    Google Scholar 

  • E. Pauw ParticleDe M.E. Coetzee (1999) ArticleTitleProduction of an agro-ecological zones map of Namibia (first approximation), Part 2: Results Agricola 10 8–68

    Google Scholar 

  • K.v. Gadow (1999) ArticleTitleWaldstruktur und Diversität Alg. Forst-u. J.-Ztg. 170 117–122

    Google Scholar 

  • K.v. Gadow G.Y. Hui M. Albert (1998) ArticleTitleDas Winkelmass – ein Strukturparameter zur Beschreibung der Individualverteilung in Waldbeständen Centralblatt das gesamte Forstwesen. 115 IssueID1 1–10

    Google Scholar 

  • K.v. Gadow G.Y. Hui B.W. Chen M. Albert (2003) ArticleTitleBeziehungen zwischen Winkelmass und Baumabständen Forstw. Cbl. 122 127–137 Occurrence Handle10.1046/j.1439-0337.2003.00127.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • W. Giess (1998) ArticleTitleA preliminary vegetation map of Namibia (3rd revised edition) Dinteria 4 1–112

    Google Scholar 

  • F.P. Graz (1996) Management of a Pterocarpus angolensis population under the influence of fire and land use University of Stellenbosch South Africa

    Google Scholar 

  • F.P. Graz (1999) ArticleTitleA preliminary terrain feature classification of the Okavango region, Namibia S. Afr. J. Survey. Geo-Inf. 1 123–129

    Google Scholar 

  • F.P. Graz (2003) ArticleTitleFire damage to Schinziophyton rautanenii (Schinz) trees in North-Eastern Namibia Dinteria 28 39–43

    Google Scholar 

  • F.P. Graz (2004) ArticleTitleThe behavior of the species mingling index M Sp in relation to species dominance and dispersal Eur. J. Forest Res. 1 87–92 Occurrence Handle10.1007/s10342-004-0016-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • G.Y. Hui M. Albert K.v. Gadow (1998) ArticleTitleDas Umgebungsmaß als Parameter zur Nachbildung von Bestandesstrukturen Forstw. Cbl. 117 258–266 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF02832980

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • R.B. Lee (1973) ArticleTitleMogongo: the ethnography of a major wild food resource Ecol. Food Nutr. 2 307–321 Occurrence Handle10.1080/03670244.1973.9990351

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • S. Leger (1997) The Hidden Gift of Nature DED, German Development Service Berlin, Germany

    Google Scholar 

  • A. Lewandowski A. Pommerening (1997) ArticleTitleZur Beschreibung der Waldstruktur – Erwartete und beobaachtete Arten-Durchmischung Forstw. Cbl. 116 129–139

    Google Scholar 

  • Mitlöhner R. 1997. Pflanzeninterne Potentiale als Indikatoren für den tropischen Standort. Shaker Verlag.

  • J. Newmark (1997) Statistics and Probability in Modern Life EditionNumber6 Sauders College Publishing Fort Worth

    Google Scholar 

  • InstitutionalAuthorNameNFSP (1996) Namibia Forestry Strategic Plan Directorate of Forestry Windhoek, Namibia

    Google Scholar 

  • T. Ollikainen (1992) Study on wood consumption in Namibia Directorate of Forestry Windhoek

    Google Scholar 

  • E.C. Pielou (1977) Mathematical Ecology John Wiley & Sons New York 384

    Google Scholar 

  • M.C. Rutherford (1981) ArticleTitleSurvival, regeneration and leaf biomass changes in woody plants following spring burns in Burkea africanaOchna pulchra savanna Bothalia 13 531–552

    Google Scholar 

  • C.M. Shackleton (2001) ArticleTitleManaging regrowth of an indigenous savanna tree species (Terminalia sericea) for fuelwood: the influence of stump dimensions and post-harvest coppice pruning Biomass Bioenergy 20 261–270 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0961-9534(00)00086-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • T.M. Smith K. Grant (1986) ArticleTitleThe role of competition in a Burkea africanaTerminalia sericea savanna Biotropica 18 219–223 Occurrence Handle10.2307/2388488

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • K. Staupendahl (2001) Das flächenbezogene Winkelmass Wf – Ein Index zur quantitativen Beschreibung der horizontalen Baumverteilung A. Akca (Eds) et al. WaldinventurWaldwachstum und Forstplanung – Moderne Technologien, Methoden und Verfahrensweisen. Festschrift K. von Gadow Zohab-Verlag Göttingen 101–115

    Google Scholar 

  • W.J. Vermeulen (1990) A monograph on Pterocarpus angolensis SARCCUS Standing Committee for Forestry Pretoria, South Africa

    Google Scholar 

  • Von Breitenbach F. 1968. Long-term plan of forestry development in eastern Caprivi Zipfel. Unpublished Report. George, South Africa.

  • B.G. Wilson E.T.F. Witkowski (2003) ArticleTitleSeed banks bark thickness and damage in age and size structure (1978–1999) of the African savanna tree Burkea africana Plant Ecol. 167 151–162 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1023999806577

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • R.I. Yeaton (1988) ArticleTitlePorcupines, fires and the dynamics of the tree layer of the Burkea africana savanna J. Ecol. 76 1017–1029

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Friedrich Patrick Graz.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Graz, F.P. Spatial Diversity of Dry Savanna Woodlands. Biodivers Conserv 15, 1143–1157 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-004-3105-6

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-004-3105-6

Keywords

  • Ecology
  • Mingling index
  • Namibia
  • Spatial diversity
  • Spatial structure
  • Uniform angle index
  • Woodland savanna