Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 14, Issue 13, pp 3289–3303 | Cite as

A Bird and Small Mammal BACI and IG Design Studies in a Wind Farm in Malpica (Spain)

  • Manuela de Lucas
  • Guyonne F.E. Janss
  • Miguel Ferrer


Wind farms have shown a spectacular growth during the last 10 years. As far as we know, this study is the first where the relationship between wind power and birds and small mammals have been considered. Before–after control impact (BACI) study design to birds and Impact Gradient (IG) study design to small mammals to test the null hypothesis of no impact of a wind farm were used. In the BACI model Windfarm Area and a Reference Area were considered. Distance from turbines was considered in the IG model. Windfarm installations did not clearly affect bird and small mammal populations. Flight height of nesting and no nesting birds did not show a clear tendency. Small mammals populations suffered high variations in numbers through times by intrinsic population factors. There are many practical problems of detection of human influence on abundances of populations so sampling in the long run can be suggested.


BACI design Birds IG design Small mammals Wind farm 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alonso C. 2002. Parque Natural de las Islas Atlánticas de Galicia. La fuerza del mar. Ambienta ( Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson, R., Morrison, M., Sinclair, K., Strickland, D. 1999Studying Wind Energy/Bird Interactions: A Guidance DocumentNational Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC)WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blanco, J.C., González, J.L. 1992Libro Rojo de los Vertebrados de EspañaColección Técnica ICONAMadridGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chase, M.K., Kristan, W.B.,III, Lynam, A.J., Price, M.V., Rotenberry, J.T. 2000Single species as indicators of species richness and composition in California coastal sage scrub birds and small mammalsConserv. Biol.14474487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dirksen S., Winden J.v.d. and Spaans A.L. 1998. Nocturnal collision risks of birds with wind turbines in tidal and semi-offshore areas. Wind Energy Landscape 99–107.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Erickson W.P., Johnson G.D., Strickland M.D., Young D.P., Sernka K.J. and Good R.E. 2001. Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States. National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC) Resource Document.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ferry, C., Frochot, B. 1958Une methode pour denombrer les oiseaux nicheursTerra e Vie10585102Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Green, R.H. 1979Sampling Design and Statistical Methods for Environmental BiologistJohn Wiley and SonsNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guillemette, M., Larsen, J.K. 2002Postdevelopment experiments to detect anthropogenic disturbance: the case of Sea Ducks and Wind ParkEcol. Appl.12868877Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Guillemette M., Larsen J.K. and Clausager I. 1998. Impact Assessment of an Off-shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks. National Environmental Research Institute, Report number 227.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hurlbert, S.H. 1984Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experimentsEcol. Monogr.54187211Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Howell J.A. 1997. Avian Use and Mortality at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District Wind Energy Development Site, Montezuma Hills, Solano County, California. Sacramento Municipal Utility District, California.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Larsen, J.K., Madsen, J. 2000Effects of wind turbines and other physical elements on field utilization by pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus): a landscape perspectiveLandscape Ecol.15755764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Leddy, K.L., Higgins, K.F., Naugle, D.E. 1999Effects of wind turbine on upland nesting birds in conservation reserve program grasslandsWilson Bull.111100104Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lucas, M.d., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. 2004The effects of a wind farm on birds in a migration point: the Strait of GibraltarBiodiv. Conserv.13395407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morrison, M.L., Sinclair, K. 1998Avian Risk and Fatality ProtocolNational Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Musters, C.J.M., Noordervliet, M.A.W., Terkeus, W.J. 1996Bird casualties caused by a wind energy project in an estuaryBird Study43124126Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Natural S.G.d.H. 1995a. Atlas de Vertebrados de Galicia. Tomo II: Aves. Santiago de Compostela.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Natural S.G.d.H. 1995b. Atlas de Vertebrados Terrestres de Galicia. Tomo I: Peixes, Anfibios, Re´ ptiles e Mamı´ feros. Santiago de Compostela.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nelson H.K. and Curry R.C. 1995. Assessing avian interactions with windplant development and operation. Trans. 60th No. Am. Wildl. & Natur. Resour. Conf. 266–277.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Orloff, S., Flannery, A. 1992Wind Turbine Effects on Avian Activity, Habitat Useand Mortality in Altamont Pass and Solano County Wind Resource AreasCalifornia Energy Commission (CEC)CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Orrock, J.L., Pagels, J.F., McShea, W.J., Harper, E.K. 2000Predicting presence and abundance of a small mammal species: the effect of scale and resolutionEcol. Appl.1013561366Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Osborn, R.G., Higgins, K.F., Usgaard, R.E., Dieter, C.D., Neiger, R.D. 2000Bird mortality associated with wind turbines at the buffalo ridge wind resource areaMinnesotaAm. Midland Nat.1434152Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Page D.S., Gilfillan E.S., Boehm P.D. and Harner E.J. 1993. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, flowing the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Part 1- Study design and methods. DRAFT. Third Symposium on Environmental Toxicology and Risk: Aquatic Plant, and Terrestrial. American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rivas-Martínez, S. 1987La vegetación de EspañaUniversidad AlcaláMadridGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rodewald, A.D., Yahner, R.H. 2001Influence of landscape composition on avian community structure and associated mechanismsEcology8234933504Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Snyder, D.P. 1978Populations of small mammals under natural conditionThe UniversityPittsburgh237Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stekoll M.S., Deyster L., Highsmith R.C., Saupe S.M., Guo Z., Erickson W.P., McDonald L. and Strickland D. 1993. Coastal Habitat Injury Assessment: Intertidal communities and the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Presented at the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Symposium, February 2–5, 1993. Anchorage, Alaska.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stewart-Oaten, A. 1986The Before-After/Control-Impact-Pairs Design for Environmental Impact AssessmentMarine Review CommitteeCaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Strickland, D., Johnson, G.D., Erickson, W.P., Sarappo, S.A., Halet, R.M. 1998Avian UseFlight Behaviorand Mortality on the Buffalo RidgeMinnesotaWind Resource AreaNational Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting IIISan DiegoCaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tellerı´ a J.L. 1986. Manual para el Censo de los Vertebrados Terrestres. Madrid.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thelander C.G. and Rugge L. 1998. Bird Risk Behaviors and Fatalities at the Altamont Wind Resource Area. National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting III. San Diego, California.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Thomas L., Laake J.L., Strindberg S., Marques F.F.C., Bochers D.L., Buckland S.T., Anderson D.R., Burham K.P., Hedley S.L. and Pollard J.H. 2002. Distance 4.0 Beta 6. Research Unit for Wildlife Population Assessment University of St. Andrews, UK. (http://www.ruwpa. Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Underwood, A.J. 1994On beyond BACI: sampling designs that might reliably detect environmental disturbancesEcol. Appl.4315Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Winkelman, J.E. 1990Bird collision victims in the experimental wind park near Oosterbierum (Fr), during building and partly operative situations (1986–1989)Instituut voor Bos- en NatuuronderzoekWageningenGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manuela de Lucas
    • 1
  • Guyonne F.E. Janss
    • 1
  • Miguel Ferrer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied BiologyEstación Biológica deDoñana (CSIC)SevilleSpain

Personalised recommendations