Honeybees Apis mellifera (European honeybee) and Apis cerana (Asian honeybee) are cosmopolitan, having colonized continents beyond their natural ranges. In tropical Australia, these alien species have recently become sympatric. The environmental and economic impacts of these species when in sympatry remain to be seen; however, any interspecific competition may be of significance. We examined conspecific and heterospecific interactions between honeybees foraging at the nectar- and pollen-providing flowers of Antipogon leptopus (Polygonaceae). We cross-classified 554 encounters by three variables; incoming bee species, resident bee species, and one of four potential responses: (1) incoming defers to resident; (2) incoming procures the flower from resident; (3) incoming and resident share the flower; or (4) both incoming and resident abandon the flower. We also measured aggression and foraging rates of workers at flowers. Both species visited similar numbers of flowers in a foraging bout and spent similar foraging times on individual flowers. Incoming A. mellifera were more likely to procure flowers from resident A. cerana, and incoming A. cerana were more likely to defer to resident A. mellifera. A. mellifera were more aggressive toward heterospecifics than conspecifics, with heterospecifics 4.5 times more likely to provoke an aggressive response. However, no significant difference between conspecific and heterospecific aggression was observed for incoming A. cerana. A. mellifera were less abundant, yet overall more likely to acquire flowers and use aggression to do so. Costs of aggression may help explain the population-scale dominance of A. cerana over A. mellifera in this study.
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The data that support the findings of this study are stored by and available from the University of New England and provided as open access, under a CC-BY 4.0 license. Data can be accessed from TBA (https://hdl.handle.net/1959.11/27494).
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This work was funded by a Price Bequest grant to CG, NRA and DP. We thank G. Trembath of Gordonvale for access to her garden.
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Gross, C.L., Whitehead, J.D., Mackay, E.S.G. et al. Interactions between two species of recently-sympatric invasive honeybees: Apis cerana induces aggression in Apis mellifera during foraging. Biol Invasions 21, 3697–3706 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-019-02081-y
- Invasive species
- Resource use