Linking thermo-tolerances of the highly invasive ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, to its current and potential distribution
Species distribution models based on the correlation of bioclimatic variables and presence spatial data-points are useful for recognizing species habitat suitability. However, they have limitations in predicting the introduced ranges of invasive species that could be overcome by using species eco-physiological traits. By combining bioclimatic variables with thermal tolerance plasticity of the highly invasive little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, we intend to better understand the mechanism underlying its current and future distributions. To this end, we performed: (1) laboratory physiological experiments to assess thermal tolerances (CTmin and CTmax) and evaluate the effect of acclimation (laboratory) and acclimatization (nature) on these variables, (2) behavioral foraging observations in the field, (3) a correlative and a simple mechanistic SDM. Briefly, physiological results showed a modulation of the CTmax and CTmin by different acclimation temperatures and by seasonal thermal acclimatization. In the field, worker foraging activity begins at environmental temperatures just above (less than 1 °C) the lowest CTmin recorded in the laboratory. At the global scale, CTmin constitutes a key physiological trait that, when linked with the minimum temperature of the coldest month, could explain the southernmost limit of W. auropunctata native distribution and its physiological capacity to expand in the Mediterranean region. The eco-physiological approach carried out here may help explain the current distribution and predict potential spread of populations when there is no certain information about the whole distribution of the species or under a changing environment. The latter is of great importance especially when analyzing invasive insects, pests or disease vectors.
KeywordsAcclimation temperature CTmax and CTmin Eco-physiology Foraging activity Invasive ant distribution Thermo-tolerance plasticity
Species distribution model
Critical thermal maximum
Critical thermal minimum
Variance inflation factor
Upper lethal temperature
Lower lethal temperature
The authors thanks Ed LeBrun, Erin Wilson-Rankin and Rodrigo Diaz for critical reading of an earlier version of the manuscript and Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Técnica/Argentina (PICT2015-3491 to LC and PES) and U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, USDA-ARS for financial support. CC, GJdlV and LC have a PhD fellowship and PES and LAC are researchers from Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Argentina. We also would like to thank two anonymous reviewers and the Editor for helpful suggestions that improved the manuscript.
CC, LAC and PES conceived the ideas and designed methodology. CC, LC and LAC collected the colonies. CC collected laboratory data. CC and GJdlV collected field data. GJdlV performed SDM. CC and GJdlV analysed the data. LAC and PES contributed reagents/materials. CC and PES led the writing of the manuscript. All authors contributed critically to the drafts and gave final approval for publication.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable institutional and/or national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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