Biological Invasions

, Volume 21, Issue 9, pp 2819–2836 | Cite as

Positive interactions among native and invasive vascular plants in Antarctica: assessing the “nurse effect” at different spatial scales

  • Cristian Atala
  • Luis R. Pertierra
  • Pedro Aragón
  • Fernando Carrasco-Urra
  • Paris Lavín
  • Jorge Gallardo-Cerda
  • Natalia Ricote-Martínez
  • Cristian Torres-Díaz
  • Marco A. Molina-MontenegroEmail author
Original Paper


Antarctica is a stressful ecosystem with few vascular plants, an ideal system to test positive interactions. Here, plants such as Deschampsia antarctica could generate more suitable micro-environmental conditions for the establishment of other plants (facilitation). We examined the co-occurrence of vascular plant species in the Antarctic Peninsula and assessed the potential nurse effect by D. antarctica on the native Colobanthus quitensis and the invasive Poa annua. We also measured the ecophysiological performance and survival of C. quitensis within and outside the canopy of D. antarctica in two study sites differing in stress levels. In addition, a survival experiment was conducted with the invasive Poa annua individuals within and outside D. antarctica individuals. In sites where present, target species co-occurred with D. antarctica in both Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula. In agreement with the stress gradient hypothesis, we found evidence of facilitation between vascular Antarctic plant species. Specifically, we found that D. antarctica facilitates the native C. quitensis and the invasive P. annua and that the effect is stronger in more stressful sites. Additionally, C. quitensis distribution is compatible with an influence of either direct or indirect facilitation from D. antarctica. Facilitation between vascular plants may play a role structuring Antarctic plant communities. Thus, distribution of native species should be considered when assessing the introduction and spread of invasive species. Also, our results together with those from previous studies showed that the type and magnitude of biotic interactions may change with time and can depend on the plant traits considered.


Antarctica Biotic interactions Colobanthus quitensis Deschampsia antarctica Nurse effect Poa annua Stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) Facilitation 



We thank INACH, the Chilean Navy and the Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station for their logistical support and measurements of field data. To conduct all manipulative experiments in the field, we have taken into account the international permits and authorizations given by the INACH. This work was funded by CONICYT Project (PII20150126). Luis R. Pertierra was supported by “ALIENANT” Project Granted by the Spanish MINECO I+D programme (CTM2013-47381-P). P. Aragón was supported by the “UNITED” Project (CGL2016-78070-P, MINECO). This article contributes to the SCAR biological research programmes “Antarctic Thresholds - Ecosystem Resilience and Adaptation” (AnT-ERA) and “State of the Antarctic Ecosystem” (AntEco).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristian Atala
    • 1
  • Luis R. Pertierra
    • 2
  • Pedro Aragón
    • 2
  • Fernando Carrasco-Urra
    • 3
  • Paris Lavín
    • 4
  • Jorge Gallardo-Cerda
    • 5
  • Natalia Ricote-Martínez
    • 6
  • Cristian Torres-Díaz
    • 7
  • Marco A. Molina-Montenegro
    • 5
    • 8
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratorio de Anatomía y Ecología Funcional de Plantas, Instituto de Biología, Facultad de CienciasPontificia Universidad Católica de ValparaísoValparaísoChile
  2. 2.Departamento de Biogeografía y Cambio GlobalMuseo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN)MadridSpain
  3. 3.Departamento de BotánicaUniversidad de ConcepciónConcepciónChile
  4. 4.Laboratorio de Complejidad Microbiana y Ecología FuncionalUniversidad de AntofagastaAntofagastaChile
  5. 5.Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Ecología Molecular y Funcional, Instituto de Ciencias BiológicasUniversidad de TalcaTalcaChile
  6. 6.Departamento de EcologíaPontificia Universidad Católica de ChileSantiagoChile
  7. 7.Laboratorio de Genómica y Biodiversidad (LGB), Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad del Bío-BíoChillánChile
  8. 8.Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Facultad de Ciencias del MarUniversidad Católica del NorteCoquimboChile

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