The origins of global invasions of the German wasp (Vespula germanica) and its infection with four honey bee viruses
A successful control or eradication programme using biological control or genetically-mediated methods requires knowledge of the origin and the extent of wasp genetic diversity. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the native and invaded range of the social wasp Vespula germanica was used to examine intra-specific genetic variation and invasive source populations. We also examined wasps for the presence of four viruses found in honey bees: Acute bee paralysis virus, Deformed wing virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus and Kashmir bee virus. German wasps showed reduced genetic diversity in the invaded range compared to that of their native range. Populations in the introduced range are likely to have arrived from different source populations. All four viral honey bee pathogens were found in V. germanica, although they varied in their distribution and strain. Multiple introductions of German wasps have occurred for most invaded regions, though some populations are genetically homogenous. The differing locations of origin will guide researchers searching for biocontrol agents and the reduced genetic diversity may make these wasps a potentially viable target for control via gene drives.
KeywordsSocial wasps Vespula germanica Pathogen Virus Pest control
For submitting samples used in this study we thank: Susan Brenton-Rule, Keith Fleming, Helmut Kovac, John McLean, Hendrik Munks, Laurent Pelozuelo, Adrian Pike, Nuria Roura, Davide Santoro, Rudi Schnitzler, Tim Scott, Rikard Unelius. We thank both a referee and the editor for providing helpful comments that improved the manuscript.
ECB-R, and PJL conceived the project; ECB-R, JD, RLB, LD, JG, MM, CM, CRS, JS, CVZ, and RV collected the samples, ECB-R, JD, JWB analysed the samples; ECB-R led the writing and interpretation with input from all authors.
Funding was provided by a RSNZ Marsden Grant to PJL and a Victoria University of Wellington PhD Scholarship to ECB-R. The Rothamsted Insect Survey, a National Capability, is funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council under the Core Capability Grant BBS/E/C/000J0200. The collection of samples in Argentina was financed by Grants to Masciocchi Maité—PICT 2015-1150—provided by the Argentinean Agencia de Promoción Científica y Técnica. Bursary and project funding from the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) who funded the project through the Environmental Resource Management fund of the Department of Environmental Affairs, and the Stellenbosch University Consolidoc programme for providing financial assistance for CvZ.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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